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Intestinal Metabolic Bromhidrosis Syndrome Alliance

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As odorous intestinal metabolites cross the intestinal wall barrier and liver they are excreted in sweat and breath. The resulting symptoms are called Bromhidrosis and Halitosis.

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As we do not maintain an own forum, we refer to the multilingual RareConnect forum, where posts are translated to multiple languages.

RareConnect is provided by EURORDIS .

The RareConnect forum is grouped by rare disease communities. At the current point in time there are two groups available:

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Discord Server

For coordination of research, email campaigns and general discussions there is a discord server available for the IMBS community.

A discord server provides a place with live chats, audio and video channels. ( Discord Homepage )

You can join a discord server via the discord android or iOS mobile app, via native windows and linux applications or your webbrowser.

Please click the following link to join the IMBS discord server:

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News

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Our patient guide is available as PDF document.

It includes a quick overview over IMBS and community and contact information.

Download

Our doctor's guide is available as PDF document.

It includes a quick overview over IMBS diagnostic and community and contact information.

As patient this allows you to hand over a first disease description to your general practitioner.

As a doctor this gives you a first introduction into the syndrome and its diagnostic space.

Download

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As our projects are mainly available under GitHub, it is possible from now on to support us via the GitHub sponsoring program.

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Patient Information

Definition

Intestinal Metabolic Bromhidrosis Syndrome (IMBS) defines a type of bromhidrosis that is caused by odorous intestinal metabolites, which pass the intestinal and liver metabolism and are excreted through the skin.

IMBS represents a group of subtly different syndromes caused by different underlying diseases, which share the fact that their patients suffer from chronic body odor. This strongly impacts their quality of life, not limited to but especially in the work environment.

Classical Medical/Dermatological View

The current support by classical medical institutions is extremely limited: Official research in the field of bromhidrosis was neglectable in the past decades and general intestinal research has not yet connected their research to the dermatological fields.

The classical dermatological research on bromhidrosis [1] mostly focuses on either topical treatments which have only a small ameliorating effect or on the removal of axillary skin glands by surgery. In cases of Trimethylaminuria (TMAU), patients currently mostly only receive dietary advice or are, in some cases, prescribed non-resorbable antibiotics [2] .

Recent Intestinal Medical Research

Newer research hypotheses focus more on the intestinal tract as the source of bromhidrosis and halitosis symptomes [3] . It is already clear that trimethylamine, which is the odorous compound responsible for TMAU type 1, is only one small player of various odorous metabolites available in the intestinal tract metabolism. There are well known further players such as carboxylates (e.g. butyrate, isovalerate), amines, sulfuric compounds, ammonia, methyl mercaptan and indole to name some of them. As the different metabolites move through their metabolic cycle, they pass, in different amounts, the intestinal wall through the intestinal epithelial layers and thus end up in the blood stream, towards the liver. In cases in which the liver metabolism is not able to handle the volume of intestinal metabolites, the metabolites pass on to be excreted by the lung gas exchange and by the outer skin sweat glands.

Bromhidrosis diseases and metabolites and gene overview

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Treatments
Symptom Treatment Effectiveness Approved by medical studies
Fish body odor Diet / Reduction of TMA containing fish and choline, betaine and carnitine containing foods 75% Yes
Fish body odor (TMAU type 2) Prescription of non resorbable antibiotics for short periods 75% Yes
Fish body odor Riboflavin supplementation 50% Yes
Fish and fecal body odor (TMAU type 2) Folate or MTHF supplementation unknown No
Fish and fecal body odor (TMAU type 2) Vitamine B12 supplementation unknown No
Fish and fecal body odor (TMAU type 2) Vitamine B6 supplementation unknown No
Fish and fecal body odor (TMAU type 2) SAMe supplementation unknown No
Fish and fecal body odor (TMAU type 2) Dietary avoidance of cysteine unknown No
Fecal body odor Glycine, Serine supplementation unknown No
Fecal body odor Choline and Folate supplementation unknown No
Fecal body odor Avoidance of benzoates, cinnamate and salicylates unknown No
Fecal body odor Avoidance of benzimidazoles like e.g. proton pump inhibitors unknown No
Fecal body odor Avoidance of stress unknown No
Fecal body odor Champex/Deodorex 10% No
Fecal body odor Dietary avoidance of D-Ribose unknown No
Fecal body odor Dietary avoidance of phosphoric acid + glucose / fructose (like e.g. Coca Cola) unknown No
Rotten eggs body odor none
Urine like body odor Protein reduction diet + prescription of non resorbable antibiotics for short periods unknown No
Urine like body odor Sodium Benzoate supplementation (consultation of a medical professional is a must) unknown No
Axillary body odor Strong antitranspirants 10% Yes
Sweat like body odor Full body application of antitranspirant + deodorant combination 10% No
Sweat/Vomit/sweaty feet like body odor Taurine, Magnesium and potassium supplements 50% No
Sweat/Vomit/sweaty feet like body odor Daily intestinal cleanings e.g. with Macrogol (can be dangerous - consultation of a medical professional upfront is a must) 30% No
Sweat/Vomit/sweaty feet like body odor Tyrosine supplements 10% No
Vomit/sweaty feet with additional urine like body odor Sodium Benzoate supplementation (consultation of a medical professional is a must) unknown No
Vomit like body odor Mangan supplements 10% No
Cabbage like body odor/halitosis Diet unknown No
IBS-C (constipation) Topinambur powder (long chain carbohydrate degrading into fructose) [Warning: Body odor elevation] 15% No
IBS-C (constipation) Magnesium oxide + citrate 15% No

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Research News

Metabolic markers:

  • Glycine

  • Citrulline

  • Choline

  • Betaine

  • Trimethylamine (TMA)

Genes:

  • BHMT

  • BHMT2

  • DMGDH

  • FMO3

  • CPS1

Link

A research paper investigates more deeply into the altered microbiotic compositions that occur in Trimethylaminuria type 2 patients.

Their investigation revealed first possible interference links from altered microbial metabolites to neurological pathways in the humand metabolism.

Some hypothesized alterations in metabolites are:

  • SCFAs (Lactate, Acetate, Butyrate, Propionate, ...)

  • ...

Hypothesized interference with human metabolites and enzymes:

  • Glutamate

  • GABA

  • Serotonine

  • Tryptophan

  • Quinolate

  • Norepinephrine

  • Dopamine

  • Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT)

  • Phosphatidylethanolamine

  • Phosphatidylcholine

  • Choline

  • Betaine transport

Link

A research study from May 2019 found that in urine samples of patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) various compounds were elevated:

  • Dimethylglycine

  • Glutamine

  • Lysine and Lysine compounds

  • Tryptophan compound

  • Ornithine

  • Imidazolepropionate

  • Dimethylguanosine

  • Serine

Especially the elevated Dimethylglycine compounds are also known from Dimethylglycinuria, which can also cause fish odor symptoms.

This is a potential first link between fish odor syndrome (TMAU2) and IBS.

Link

A small study around Jun Nishihira tried to investigate in the effects of champignon extract (Champex) on body odor and halitosis.

The study design is based on a patient questionaire, which gives a weak indication that Champex can improve regular body odor of elderly patients.

It is unclear at the moment if those results will apply to IMBS patients.

Link

In March 2020 a new research paper was published regarding a new treatment solution for Trimethylaminuria using engineered polymersomes...

Link

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Diagnostic

Official diagnostic tests:

  • Urine and genetic test for trimethylaminuria [1]

  • Urine and genetic test for dimethylglycinuria [2]

  • Genetic testing for SELENBP1 (Halitosis) [3]

  • Blood testing for Dimethylsulphidemia (Halitosis) [4]

  • Blood testing for Hyperammonemia in the context of weak urea cycle disorders [5]

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There are two guideline documents available for download.

The first guide is addressing patients: Patient's guide

The second guide is addressing medical practitioners: Doctor's guide

Those guides are free to copy and multiply.

If you as a patient want to visit e.g. your general practitioner with the topic of IMBS symptoms the first time, please print out the doctor's guide on paper and provide it to your general practitioner to support him/her in gathering relevant information.

Not verified and explorative tests:

Blood tests

  • Ammonia blood test (available by your general practitioner)

Amino acids blood spot tests

Urine sample tests

Tests known from research studies

  • SCFAs (including butyrate and isovalerate) blood to stool ratio ( [1] )

Other unspecific tests

  • PTH (Parathyroid hormone) blood test

  • Low blood potassium levels

Notes:

  • Organic aciduria urine tests are regularly without any result (In those diseases all organs and cell are affected and the kidneys and liver are not able to mask any metabolite)

  • In IMBS patients deficiencies of enzymes seem to be very limited to intestinal and liver metabolism, which results in masking of metabolites by liver and kidneys. Again its worth to mention the short half time below 10 minutes of butyrates in blood and also ( [2] ) once more, as the paper shows a reduction of factor 4 of e.g. butyrate levels compared from portal vein blood to blood within the circulation after the liver

  • In IMBS cases in general blood tests have the ability to reveal more direct metabolites compared to urine tests

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Rare disease centers

We encourage all patients to contact rare disease centers in their respective country. Please prepare yourself as most medical practitioners have no special or even no knowledge at all around anaerobic metabolites and that they occur in the human metabolism. Normally specialists that know about those metabolites can be found in the field of classical organic acidurias, but they normally lack special knowledge of intestinal diseases. Nevertheless they might be a first contact point which can route patients to specialist in intestinal research diagnostic. In order to help them find the correct contact persons, you can also refer them to the IMBS homepage, where they can get a detailed overview about the disease. Also make them aware that classical organic acid screenings via urine sample tests are already known to not be applicable to IMBS patients.

Official genetic testing (Germany)

In Germany it is required by law, if a genetic test should be applied, that patients receive genetic counseling before the test. Genetic counseling is normally also handled by rare disease centers, so those are a first contact point.

There are also laboratories available which allow to pay privately and also offer genetic counseling:

Note: German health insurance providers pay now for necessary genetic tests for a small number of target genes (<=20). This opens a new way also for IMBS patients with not enough private money for WES or WGS screenings to ask for genetic testing for their condition.

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Genova Diagnostics

Genova Diagnostics is a private service provider that offers mainly metabolomic but also genomic tests. They offer their services in US and UK at the moment. In normal cases they work together with specialized general practitioners as contact to private end users.

Homepage

Medivere Diagnostics

Medivere Diagnostics offers small standard blood, urine and stool tests to end users in their online shop. Their service is available in Germany.

Homepage

Cerascreen

Cerascreen provides an online shop which offers e.g. standard amino acid blood spot tests but also a wide variety of standard tests. Their online shop is available in Germany.

Homepage

IFU Wolfhagen

IFU Wolfhagen offers e.g. urine analytic panels in their online shop. Their services is available in Germandy.

Homepage

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Amino Acids

The different smell types the IMBS patients suffer from are associated to different odorous compounds. Those odorous compounds are very often also part of the close degradation or synthesis of amino acids.

Following you find the relations between odorous compounds and amino acids:

Fish odor / Trimethylamine

  • Choline

  • Betaine

  • Lecithin

  • Carnitine

Fecal body odor / Indole, Skatole

  • Tryptophan

  • Glycine

  • Serine

  • Phenylalanine

  • Tyrosine

  • Histidine

Foul eggs body odor / Sulfur compounds

  • Cysteine

  • Methionine

  • Taurine

Urine body odor / Ammonia

  • Ornithine

  • Aspartate

  • Citrulline

  • Arginine

  • Glycine

  • Serine

  • Glutamine

  • Glutamate

Vomit body odor / butyrate

  • Lysine

  • Valine

(Also amino acids from urine body odor can apply)

Sweaty feet / isovalerate

  • Leucine

  • Isoleucine

(Also amino acids from urine body odor can apply)

Rotten meat like / Putrescine, Cadaverine

  • Ornithine (Putrescine)

  • Lysine (Cadaverine)

Garbage like / Hydrogen sulfide, Dimethyl sulfide, Methanethiol, Putrescine, Cadaverine, Trimethylamine, Ammonia, Acetaldehyde, Acetate

This is a mixture of previous groups. [1]

Dietary approach

We strongly recommend to not use full elimination diets in any form for a longer period of time.

Cravings are normally a sign of the body for the need of certain nutrients. Do not ignore them in the context of a reduction diet in a context of a certain amino acid.

Also be aware that the listed amino acids are only grouped by colocation within biochemical pathway boundaries. Some diseased will perhaps only affect one amino acid within a group or also only some from a combinations of groups.

As an real life example a blood spot amino acid screening revealed following amino acids to be out of normal ranges:

  • Tryptophan: ++

  • Glycine: ++

  • Serine: ++

  • Lysine: -

  • Ornithine: ++

  • Aspartate: ++

  • Histidine: +

Symbols:

  • '++' = high above normal range

  • '+' = very high but within normal range

  • '-' = very low but within normal range

  • '--' = below normal range

As you can see such a amino acid screening might give some hints what to supplement and what to reduce within the diet.

Be still aware of the fact, that is unclear at the moment how to correctly react on certain amino acid levels to be above or below normal ranges.

There are certain hints present that some type of odorous metabolites do actually stabilize the harmed intestinal metabolism to a certain degree, others dont.

So a wrong dietary elimination choice might also increase the damage to intestinal cells over time, even if the body odor or halitosis was reduced for a period of time.

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From our personal observation in patient research, hyperhidrosis (extensive sweating) can be a correlating symptom to bromhidrosis, but it does not have to be present. We perceive only a small fraction of the patients to have actually both bromhidrosis and hyperhidrosis symptoms.

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Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) [1] is defined as a chronic functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. It is characterized by abdominal pain and/or changes in bowel movements.

Our observation shows that about 20-30% of IMBS patients also suffer from IBS or begin to suffer after some years of chronic body odor symptoms.

Also our observation shows that a fecal body odor seems to be more likely associated with IBS-D and a sweat/vomit/sweaty feet body odor is more likely associated with IBS-C.

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Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)

Introduction

Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is an approach to allows to sequence parts or the whole DNA/RNA strand structure of the human genomes. The NGS approach has emerged more and more in the past decade to be used as method within research studies to isolate causal relationships to diseases and their symptoms.

See also Wikibook about NGS and the underlying techniques

Criteria for NGS services

Depending on the country laws there are not only official medical institutions available that offer NGS services to patients but also private service providers.

If NGS services should utilized to get more information about a potential underlying disease, it is important to know about some important attributes of the different provided services.

  • Type of sequencing: whole genome (WGS) [1] or whole exome (WES) [2]

  • Coverage [3] : represents the number of times the sequencing covered the same target reference area

  • Sequencing result provided in file formats: VCF (with/without annotations), FASTQ, BAM

Cost perspective:

  • WGS 20x : ~ 600€

  • WES 20x : ~ 400€

(prices do heavily change over time and between different service providers)

Requirements for medical representative evaluations:

  • At the moment a minimum of a 20x coverage of the target area is accepted to allow a medical relevant interpretation

  • WGS includes the intron areas but is not yet easily interpretable as the intron areas are prone to high variations, but that improves steadily over time (so the data from today might be utilizable in the future just by reinterpretation of the data by newer software applications and new entries in the variant databases)

Regarding ancestry services like 23andMe:

The ancestry services like 23andMe are very limited in the sense of which parts of the exome area is targeted/covered and how often the target area is read (read coverage). The process of 23andme rely on genotyping approaches and not on WES or WGS. [4]

We do not recommend ancestry services for medical relevant investigations, instead we recommend at least a WES 20x offer by a service provider who provides at least annotated VCF files or even better additionally the original FASTQ files which contains the raw sequencing information.

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Medically known genes

A limited set of gene defects is already known to be related to chronic body odor and/or halitosis.

  • FMO3 (Trimethylaminuria) [1]

  • DMGDH (Dimethylglycine dehydrogenase deficiency) [2]

  • SELENBP1 (Methanethiol oxidase deficiency / EHMTO) [3]

Explorative gene candidates

For other body odor or halitosis types there are no official gene defects known so far. But there are gene candidates available that might be involved because they encode enzymes, transporters, receptors around biochemical pathways related to certain odorous metabolites.

Sweat or vomit, sweaty feet like body odor / Carboxylates, Butyrate, Isovalerate...

Direct enzyme defects:

  • ACSM2B

  • ACSM5

  • ACSM2A

Indirectly involved defects:

  • CPS1 (also as benign qualified variants with known elevated glycine levels)

Also potentially indirectly involved genes:

  • MYLK

  • ATP10B

  • AGXT2

  • SLC28A1

  • SLC23A1

  • SLC17A4

  • SLC10A2

Fecal body odor / Indole,Skatole

  • BHMT2

  • CYP2E1

  • CYP2B

  • CYP2A6

Fecal and sweat like body odor / IBS-C and IBS-D related genes

  • GUCY2C

  • TRPV3

  • SCN5A

  • AQP8

  • IDO1

  • PGP

  • GAD2

  • FAAH

  • NPSR1

  • FUT2

Semiautomated gene reports

We provide semiautomated reports based on gene analysis results from an IMBS patient cohort.

  • Genes with intestinal and liver expression that where matched by at least two patients: Report

  • Genes of IMBS patient cohort matched against genes of IBS research publications: Report

Additional note

It is not necessary that always a genetic defect is present in chronic body odor cases. There are also reports from patients that the symptoms started after food poisoning or antibiotic treatment.

So be aware that a metabolome analysis in those cases would reveal more information.

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In metabolome studies following metabolic markers have been observed to be potentially out of normal ranges in IMBS patients:

  • Benzoate / Benzoic acid

  • Hippurate / Hippuric acid

  • Tartarate / Tartaric acid

  • Orotate / Orotic acid

  • Cis-aconitate / Cis-aconitic acid

  • Succinate / Succinic acid

  • Isocitrate

  • Fumarate

  • Hydroxymethylglutarate

  • Histidine

  • Taurine

  • Threonine

  • Tryptophan

  • Glycine

  • Serine

  • Phosphoserine

  • Vanilmandelate

  • Homovanillate

  • Ornithine

  • Citrulline

  • Pyroglutamate

  • Para-hydroxyphenylacetate

  • Anserine

  • Carnosine

  • 1-Methylhistidine

  • beta-alanine

  • Linoleate / linoleic acid

  • Potassium

  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

Feedback

For the IMBS patient subgroup, which shows a fecal like body odor, the metabolites indole and secondary skatole are in the focus as those metabolites are creating a strong fecal like scent.

We expect at least three different types of causative reasons in those subgroups:

  • Enzyme deficiencies in directly indole degrading enzymes like e.g. CYP2E1, CYP2B, ...

  • Enzyme deficiencies in the choline -> glycine degradation pathway (BHMT2, Methyltetrahydrofolate cluster)

  • Enzyme deficiencies in the lower glycine + benzoate -> hippurate degradation pathway

Shikimate pathway forming Tryptophan over Indole

The shikimate pathway [1] is a microbial pathway which is responsible for the biosynthesis of tryptophan combining indole and glyine/serine [2] .

As its precursors glycine and serine and the product tryptophan are involved, the human degradation pathways of those amino acids might be of high relevancy for the elevated formation of indole.

Also of high importance are glutamine and glutamate as they are related to the source of the second precursor anthranilate of the indole synthesis.

Choline -> Glycine degradation pathway

A subgroup of fecal body odor patients do show also positive Trimethylaminuria urine tests. Which indicates a formation of elevated Trimethylamine (TMA) levels in the intestinal area. One reason could be a impaired choline uptake and degradation which results in an elevated degradation of choline to TMA in the intestinal lumen. As the degradation pathway of choline also affects the availability of glycine and serine, it is a promising candidate branch to be also responsible for an elevated indole concentration.

For this subgroup folate supplementation might be helpful, as folate supports the choline, betaine -> glycine, serine degradation.

Glycine + Benzoate -> Hippurate degradation pathway

In metabolome analysis results for fecal body odor patients we observed elevated benzoate with at the same time below normal ranges hippurate levels. Glycine levels were normally low but in normal range.

This is related to the glycine detoxification mechanism [3] , which could be impaired in this subgroup of IMBS patients by too low availability of glycine or serine.

If the indication of a too low availability of glycine and serine is correct, the low levels would impair the bile acid salt conjugation with glycine and lower the availability of glycine in the intestinal lumen.

The ration glycine/taurine would shift and the tryptophan formation over indole + glycine might be impaired with the result of elevated indole concentrations in the intestinal lumen.

High Glutamate, Glycine, Ornithine, Citrulline, Tryptophan, Phenylalanine, Tyrosine, Methionine, Taurine, BCAAs, Ammonia and low Arginine, Glutamine, Lysine -> Urea cycle deficiency

Elevations in various amino acids related to the ammonia degradation have been found with transitive hyperammonemia. This indicates the possibility of a second gene defect in the urea cycle pathway being the source of a fecal smell.

CYP enzyme family

Some CYP family enzymes are known to degradate indole to less odorous metabolites.

Examples are:

  • CYP2E1, CYP2B [4]

Those are prominent candidates for enzyme deficiencies that might lead to an impaired indole degradation.

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For the IMBS patient subgroup, which shows a vomit like, sweat like or sweaty feet like body odor, the main scent driving metabolites are from the carboxylates group:

  • Butyrate (Vomit like)

  • Isovalerate (Sweaty feet like, cheesy)

  • Hexanoate

We expect at least two different types of causative reasons:

  • Enzyme deficiencies in directly butyrate or isovalerate degrading enzymes like e.g. ACSM2B , ...

  • Mitochondrial impairment of intestinal barrier cells, e.g. by local hyperammonia in those cells (not systemic)

ACSM2B and deficiencies in the degradation pathway (IMBS Carboxylate Type 1)

In contrast to other odorous metabolites, the carboxylates group is a major energy source for the intestinal barrier cells and the liver.

The also known term 'short chain fatty acids' (SCFAs) refers mostly to a subset of carboxylates but also including e.g. methylated forms of them.

Following genes and enzymes are prominent candidates for enzyme deficiencies:

  • ACSM2B / EC 6.2.1.2 butyrate CoA ligase

  • A possible unknown gene encoding an isovalerate CoA ligase

Important is the aspect that e.g. the ACSM2B is also involved in salicylates, benzoate and phenylacetate in a lesser extend.

Also important:

  • Magnesium

  • Mangan

are cofactors of those enzymes. Supplementation of those could improve enzyme efficiency.

Mitochondrial impairment of the intestinal barrier cells by ammonia (IMBS Carboxylate Type 2 / IMBS CPS1)

Another possible causative situation can occur, if the mitochondrial activity of the intestinal barrier cells is impaired. One reason can be elevated cell local concentrations of ammonia, which would impair the degradation of the short chain acids (carboxylates) taken up from the colon. A typical sign in the later progress in this case can be IBS-C (constipation) symptoms which are caused from nerve function impairment e.g. in the sigma of the colon. Those symptoms can be present immediately or set in after years of the first bromhidrosis symptoms.

Food list (bad):

  • Cheese (High Glutamate)

  • Red meat (High amino acids content)

Metabolome biomarkers

Possible observations in that case are:

  • Slightly elevated ornithine, glycine, serine levels in blood

  • Also possibly slightly elevated Tryptophan, Histidine, Threonine levels in blood

  • Mainly elevated citrulline levels in urine

  • Low potassium (ammonia impairs potassium uptake indirectly by binding to the potassium receptors)

  • Low benzoate/benzoic acid levels in urine

During sodium benzoate treatment:

  • Very high hippurate/hippuric acid levels in urine

Genetic markers

  • Weak deficiencies in the CPS1 gene encoding the Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (Urea cycle disorder)

  • Example variant: rs1047883 [1]

Deficiencies in the CPS1 also including those marked as benign for hyperammonemia in the peripheral blood. Especially those which are linked also to elevated glycine levels in blood.

The qualification as benign is not related to benign in the context of IMBS as in IMBS cases the local hyperammonia in intestinal barrier cells can not necessarily be quantified by blood tests at the moment.

Treatment

  • Standard hyperammonia treatment with sodium benzoate orally (<5g distributed over the day) can show here very good effects reducing the nerve pain sensation for the IBS-C symptoms as well

  • Reducing the dietary amount of glycine and serine (or protein in general)

  • Reducing the dietary amount of glutamine, glutamate, aspartate, lysine and ornithine

  • Reducing the uptake of calcium

  • Increase of the magnesium (oxide or carbonate, not only citrate!) uptake

  • Increase of potassium uptake

  • Supplementation of Topinambur as inulin supplement, which is degraded as long chain carbohydrate to fructose mostly in the large intestinal tract (Increases the smell, but ameliorates the ammonia impairment of the mitchondria - should be taken first time after 1 week of sodium benzoate treatment)

Additional observations

  • Also an observation is that the impaired colon motility leads to fat accumulation in the colon, which could be an additional aspect related to the increased SCFAs concentrations.

  • Magnesium carbonate and oxide (also all other carbonates) should be taken in small amounts (1 capsule per day) and with care, as they easily elevate the intestinal pH up to pH 10, which can injure the intestinal wall.

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Cancer Research

Connection between subtypes of IMBS and butyrate

The field of cancer research seems to be far away from IMBS research on the first glance.

Interestingly it turns out to be the complete opposite if we take a look on biochemical side of some patient subgroups of IMBS and their affected metabolic compounds.

There are patients that report to have a very strong 'vomit' like body odor. The related metabolite known to have such an odor signature is butyrate in water solution.

What is butyrate?

Butyrate is the salt form of butyric acid which is widely known to be the major contributor to the smell of vomit.

As salt it can come in various combinations with different cations like:

  • Sodium (Na+)

  • Magnesium (Mg2+)

  • Potassium (K+)

  • Calcium (Ca2+)

E.g. sodium butyrate is also commonly available over the counter in supplement form.

Butyrate suppresses cancer growth in vitro but is not stable enough in blood stream

In the cancer research field Butryrates have been observed to have a strong growth suppressing effect of cancer cells in vitro. [1]

Unfortunately explorative studies, which tried to utilize a butyrate solution as blood infusion, failed to stabilize the butyrates in the blood circulation. Butyrates turned out to have very short stability half times of under 10 minutes before they get consumed and degraded by the human cells. [2]

Butyrate relevance in IBD

Newer research on the side of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBS) showed now some diagnostic advances which revealed e.g. 'naturally' elevated isobutyrate levels in a small sample group of IBD patients. [3]

In other words, carboxylates like butyrate or isobutyrate can be elevated in the intestinal -> liver axis and are obviously not causing any harm as IBD patients are normally regarded as healthy beside their intestinal inflammation issues.

Resulting hypotheses

This new direction results in two hypotheses:

  • butyrates or carboxylates (like e.g. also isovalerate) in general might also be elevated in IMBS patient groups as their odors do match exactly the signature of those compounds

  • for cancer treatment support it might be possible to reproduce similar blood levels of butyrates easily by oral over supplementation (with likely resulting bromhidrosis symptomes) and this might result in a suppressed cancer growth, if the cancer is located on the intestinal -> liver blood axis.

Additional personal observation

  • As part of a investigation and visualization of a colorectal tumour sample from a tumour located in the descending colon, we applied a double mRNA expression analysis on the tumour sample and a healthy gut wall sample close to the tumour location

  • Comparison of enzyme expression levels showed that not only the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was over expressed, but also e.g. the butyryl-CoA synthetase (EC 6.2.1.2) was overexpressed. This might give a first hint that the anaerobic inner cancer metabolism does also supports its ATP supply by the reverse reaction that results in a butyrate synthesis like in a typical bacterial metabolism.

  • A theoretical result would be the hypothesis that increased butyrate levels would suppress the ATP supply of the inner cancer core cells and therefore would reduce cancer growth. This hypothetical consequence is already verified by experimental investigations prior to it. (See references in the above text)

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Library
Title Authors Date Link
Multi-Pharmacology of Berberine in Atherosclerosis and Metabolic Diseases: Potential Contribution of Gut Microbiota Yang S, Li D, Yu Z 2021-07-09 PMC
Differential Diagnosis of Chorea—HIV Infection Delays Diagnosis of Huntington’s Disease by Years Achenbach J, Faissner S, Saft C 2021-05-27 PMC
Trimethylaminuria and Vascular Complications Oliveira-Filho AF, Medeiros PF, Velloso ... 2021-05-03 PMC
A Case of Fishy Smell-Fish Malodor Syndrome Wang AW, Greenberg PD, Saul SR 2021-05-03 PMC
Trimethylamine modulates dauer formation, neurodegeneration, and lifespan through tyra‐3/daf‐11 signaling in Caenorhabdi... Khanna A, Sellegounder D, Kumar J 2021-04-05 PMC
Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Levels Are Similar in Asymptomatic vs. Symptomatic Cerebrovascular Atherosclerosis Heyse M, Schneider C, Monostori P 2021-03-19 PMC
Cancer interception by interceptor molecules: mechanistic, preclinical and human translational studies with chlorophylls Dashwood RH 2021-03-06 PMC
Flavin-Containing Monooxygenases Are Conserved Regulators of Stress Resistance and Metabolism Huang S, Howington MB, Dobry CJ 2021-02-12 PMC
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) in human health Gatarek P, Kaluzna-Czaplinska J 2021-02-11 PMC
Genomic Insights into Adaptations of Trimethylamine-Utilizing Methanogens to Diverse Habitats, Including the Human Gut de la Cuesta-Zuluaga J, Spector TD, Youn... 2021-02-09 PMC
Gut-Brain Axis Cross-Talk and Limbic Disorders as Biological Basis of Secondary TMAU Donato L, Alibrandi S, Scimone C 2021-01-31 PMC
Solvent Accessibility of Residues Undergoing Pathogenic Variations in Humans: From Protein Structures to Protein Sequenc... Savojardo C, Manfredi M, Martelli PL 2021-01-07 PMC
Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Dad-13 powder consumption on the gut microbiota and intestinal health of ove... Rahayu ES, Mariyatun M, Putri Manurung N... 2021-01-07 PMC
Le Carbone prevents liver damage in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis-hepatocellular carcinoma mouse model via AMPKα-SIRT1 s... Afrin MR, Arumugam S, Pitchaimani V 2021-01-05 PMC
Role of Gut Microbiota and Their Metabolites on Atherosclerosis, Hypertension and Human Blood Platelet Function: A Revie... Duttaroy AK 2021-01-03 PMC
Choline Acetyltransferase Induces the Functional Regeneration of the Salivary Gland in Aging SAMP1/Kl -/- Mice Toan NK, Tai NC, Kim SA 2021-01-02 PMC
Ancestral reconstruction of mammalian FMO1 enables structural determination, revealing unique features that explain its ... Bailleul G, Nicoll CR, Mascotti ML 2020-12-25 PMC
How Can Drug Metabolism and Transporter Genetics Inform Psychotropic Prescribing? Carvalho Henriques B, Yang EH, Lapetina ... 2020-12-08 PMC
Use of Flavin-Containing Monooxygenases for Conversion of Trimethylamine in Salmon Protein Hydrolysates Goris M, Puntervoll P, Rojo D 2020-11-24 PMC
Structural basis of carnitine monooxygenase CntA substrate specificity, inhibition, and intersubunit electron transfer Quareshy M, Shanmugam M, Townsend E 2020-11-23 PMC
Insight into the intestinal microbiome of farrowing sows following the administration of garlic (Allium sativum) extract... Satora M, Magdziarz M, Rząsa A 2020-11-13 PMC
Drug Discovery and Development of Novel Therapeutics for Inhibiting TMAO in Models of Atherosclerosis and Diabetes Steinke I, Ghanei N, Govindarajulu M 2020-10-29 PMC
An Expanded Genetic Code Enables Trimethylamine Metabolism in Human Gut Bacteria Kivenson V, Giovannoni SJ 2020-10-27 PMC
Impact of trimethylaminuria on daily psychosocial functioning Roddy D, McCarthy P, Nerney D 2020-10-06 PMC
Vitamin D Decreases Plasma Trimethylamine-N-oxide Level in Mice by Regulating Gut Microbiota Wang X, Li X, Dong Y 2020-10-05 PMC
Role of drug metabolizing enzymes in chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity and hepatotoxicity Tao G, Huang J, Moorthy B 2020-09-02 PMC
Heart Failure Disturbs Gut–Blood Barrier and Increases Plasma Trimethylamine, a Toxic Bacterial Metabolite Drapala A, Szudzik M, Chabowski D 2020-08-26 PMC
Regulation of dynamic pigment cell states at single-cell resolution Perillo M, Oulhen N, Foster S 2020-08-19 PMC
Mitochondrial and Peroxisomal Alterations Contribute to Energy Dysmetabolism in Riboflavin Transporter Deficiency Colasuonno F, Niceforo A, Marioli C 2020-08-12 PMC
The Relationship between Choline Bioavailability from Diet, Intestinal Microbiota Composition, and Its Modulation of Hum... Arias N, Arboleya S, Allison J 2020-08-05 PMC
Effect of Choline Forms and Gut Microbiota Composition on Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Response in Healthy Men Cho CE, Aardema ND, Bunnell ML 2020-07-25 PMC
MtcB, a member of the MttB superfamily from the human gut acetogen Eubacterium limosum, is a cobalamin-dependent carniti... Kountz DJ, Behrman EJ, Zhang L 2020-06-22 PMC
Plasma Trimethylamine N-Oxide and Its Precursors: Population Epidemiology, Parent–Child Concordance, and Associations wi... Andraos S, Lange K, Clifford SA 2020-06-10 PMC
Nonlethal Inhibition of Gut Microbial Trimethylamine N‐oxide Production Improves Cardiac Function and Remodeling in a Mu... Organ CL, Li Z, Sharp TE III 2020-05-10 PMC
Trimethylamine N-Oxide in Relation to Cardiometabolic Health—Cause or Effect? Papandreou C, Moré M, Bellamine A 2020-05-07 PMC
Impact of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) metaorganismal pathway on cardiovascular disease Zhao Y, Wang Z 2020-04-20 PMC
Microbiota and Malodor—Etiology and Management Mogilnicka I, Bogucki P, Ufnal M 2020-04-20 PMC
Olfaction scaffolds the developing human from neonate to adolescent and beyond Schaal B, Saxton TK, Loos H 2020-04-20 PMC
Simultaneous Measurement of Urinary Trimethylamine (TMA) and Trimethylamine N-Oxide (TMAO) by Liquid Chromatography–Mass... Jia X, Osborn LJ, Wang Z 2020-04-17 PMC
Gut Microbiota beyond Bacteria—Mycobiome, Virome, Archaeome, and Eukaryotic Parasites in IBD Matijašić M, Meštrović T, Čipčić Paljeta... 2020-04-11 PMC
Gut microbiota in atherosclerosis: focus on trimethylamine N‐oxide Zhu Y, Li Q, Jiang H 2020-03-30 PMC
Engineered Polymersomes for the Treatment of Fish Odor Syndrome: A First Randomized Double Blind Olfactory Study Schmidt AC, Hebels ER, Weitzel C 2020-03-09 PMC
The Protective Effect of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor on Diabetic Nephropathy Through Remodeling Metabolic Phenotype a... Wei T, Shu Q, Ning J 2020-02-21 PMC
Trimethylamine N-Oxide Generated by the Gut Microbiota Is Associated with Vascular Inflammation: New Insights into Ather... Liu Y, Dai M 2020-02-17 PMC
Comparative milk proteome analysis of Kashmiri and Jersey cattle identifies differential expression of key proteins invo... Bhat SA, Ahmad SM, Ibeagha-Awemu EM 2020-02-14 PMC
Associations of plasma trimethylamine N-oxide, choline, carnitine, and betaine with inflammatory and cardiometabolic ris... Fu BC, Hullar MA, Randolph TW 2020-02-13 PMC
Fabrication of Biobased Hydrophobic Hybrid Cotton Fabrics Using Molecular Self-Assembly: Applications in the Development... Thamizhanban A, Sarvepalli GP, Lalitha K 2020-02-12 PMC
Short chain fatty acids and methylamines produced by gut microbiota as mediators and markers in the circulatory system Onyszkiewicz M, Jaworska K, Ufnal M 2020-01-16 PMC
Case reports of metabolic disorders from Nepal Sharma Pandey A 2019-11-19 PMC
Gut Microbiota-Dependent Marker TMAO in Promoting Cardiovascular Disease: Inflammation Mechanism, Clinical Prognostic, a... Yang S, Li X, Yang F 2019-11-19 PMC
Combining culture and culture‐independent methods reveals new microbial composition of halitosis patients' tongue biofil... Bernardi S, Karygianni L, Filippi A 2019-11-14 PMC
Untargeted Urinary 1H NMR-Based Metabolomic Pattern as a Potential Platform in Breast Cancer Detection Silva CL, Olival A, Perestrelo R 2019-11-07 PMC
Endovascular Closure Resolves Trimethylaminuria Caused by Congenital Portosystemic Shunts Ponce-Dorrego MD, Garzón-Moll G 2019-11-07 PMC
Metabolic Activation of Flavin Monooxygenase-mediated Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Formation in Experimental Kidney Disease Prokopienko AJ, West RE III, Schrum DP 2019-11-04 PMC
Elevation of Trimethylamine-N-Oxide in Chronic Kidney Disease: Contribution of Decreased Glomerular Filtration Rate Pelletier CC, Croyal M, Ene L 2019-11-01 PMC
Derivatization‐free determination of short‐chain volatile amines in human plasma and urine by headspace gas chromatograp... Neyer P, Bernasconi L, Fuchs JA 2019-10-08 PMC
A case of axillary bromhidrosis secondary to trimethylaminuria successfully treated with microwave-based therapy Patel F, Tu YM, Fernandes S 2019-10-07 PMC
Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) Renders Alkalinizing Properties and Its Urinary Metabolic Markers of MSG Consumption in Rats Nahok K, Li JV, Phetcharaburanin J 2019-09-27 PMC
Diagnosis and phenotypic assessment of trimethylaminuria, and its treatment with riboflavin: 1H NMR spectroscopy and gen... Bouchemal N, Ouss L, Brassier A 2019-09-18 PMC
NMR-based newborn urine screening for optimized detection of inherited errors of metabolism Embade N, Cannet C, Diercks T 2019-09-10 PMC
Changes in the Substrate Source Reveal Novel Interactions in the Sediment-Derived Methanogenic Microbial Community Szafranek-Nakonieczna A, Pytlak A, Grząd... 2019-09-08 PMC
Fast LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis and influence of sampling conditions for gut metabolites in plasma and serum van der Laan T, Kloots T, Beekman M 2019-08-26 PMC
Trimethylamine N-Oxide Metabolites in Early Pregnancy and Risk of Gestational Diabetes: A Nested Case-Control Study Huo X, Li J, Cao YF 2019-08-02 PMC
Gut microbes and metabolites as modulators of blood-brain barrier integrity and brain health Parker A, Fonseca S, Carding SR 2019-08-01 PMC
Effects of Hardwood Biochar on Methane Production, Fermentation Characteristics, and the Rumen Microbiota Using Rumen Si... Teoh R, Caro E, Holman DB 2019-07-10 PMC
A Cross-Sectional Study of Compositional and Functional Profiles of Gut Microbiota in Sardinian Centenarians Wu L, Zeng T, Zinellu A 2019-07-09 PMC
Abstracts from the 51st European Society of Human Genetics Conference: Posters 2019-07-03 PMC
Facile Fluorescence Monitoring of Gut Microbial Metabolite Trimethylamine N-oxide via Molecular Recognition of Guanidini... Yu H, Geng WC, Zheng Z 2019-06-24 PMC
Gut Microbiota and Ischemic Stroke: The Role of Trimethylamine N-Oxide Nam HS 2019-05-31 PMC
Impact of the halitosis on QoL in overweight and obese patients: Based on six years of experience in two centers in sula... Ahmed HO, Zmnako SS, Amin ZM 2019-05-30 PMC
Effect of Grape Pomace Polyphenols With or Without Pectin on TMAO Serum Levels Assessed by LC/MS-Based Assay: A Prelimin... Annunziata G, Maisto M, Schisano C 2019-05-21 PMC
Modulation of Circulating Trimethylamine N-Oxide Concentrations by Dietary Supplements and Pharmacological Agents: A Sys... Kalagi NA, Abbott KA, Alburikan KA 2019-05-10 PMC
Intestinal Microbiota in Cardiovascular Health and Disease: JACC State-of-the-Art Review Tang WH, Backhed F, Landmesser U 2019-04-30 PMC
Baseline urinalysis values in common bottlenose dolphins under human care in the Caribbean Jiménez-Zucchet N, Alejandro-Zayas T, Al... 2019-04-04 PMC
The genetic and biochemical basis of trimethylaminuria in an Irish cohort Doyle S, O'Byrne JJ, Nesbitt M 2019-03-25 PMC
Diet-induced metabolic changes of the human gut microbiome: importance of short-chain fatty acids, methylamines and indo... Abdul Rahim MB, Chilloux J, Martinez-Gil... 2019-03-22 PMC
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and the gut microbiome: Are bacteria responsible for fatty liver? Dong TS, Jacobs JP 2019-03-14 PMC
Wide diversity of methane and short-chain alkane metabolisms in uncultured archaea Borrel G, Adam PS, McKay LJ 2019-03-04 PMC
Psychotropics and the Microbiome: a Chamber of Secrets… Cussotto S, Clarke G, Dinan TG 2019-02-26 PMC
Association of FMO3 Variants with Blood Pressure in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study Bryant TS, Duggal P, Yu B 2019-02-18 PMC
Choline‐related‐inherited metabolic diseases—A mini review Wortmann SB, Mayr JA 2019-01-25 PMC
CRISPR analysis suggests that small circular single-stranded DNA smacoviruses infect Archaea instead of humans Díez-Villaseñor C, Rodriguez-Valera F 2019-01-17 PMC
Structure-guided identification of a small molecule that inhibits anaerobic choline metabolism by human gut bacteria Orman M, Bodea S, Funk MA 2018-12-17 PMC
Inborn errors of metabolism in the 21st century: past to present Arnold GL PMC
Common metabolic disorder (inborn errors of metabolism) concerns in primary care practice Agana M, Frueh J, Kamboj M PMC
From Point-of-Care Testing to eHealth Diagnostic Devices (eDiagnostics) Christodouleas DC, Kaur B, Chorti P 2018-11-20 PMC
Metabolic functions of the human gut microbiota: the role of metalloenzymes Rajakovich LJ, Balskus * EP 2018-11-19 PMC
Human chemosignals of disgust facilitate food judgment Zheng Y, You Y, Farias AR 2018-11-19 PMC
Nicotine-N’-oxidation by flavin monooxygenase enzymes Perez-Paramo YX, Chen G, Ashmore JH 2018-10-31 PMC
Evaluation of bleeding disorders in patients with Noonan syndrome: a systematic review Nugent DJ, Romano AA, Sabharwal S 2018-10-23 PMC
Trimethylamine N-Oxide: A Link among Diet, Gut Microbiota, Gene Regulation of Liver and Intestine Cholesterol Homeostasi... Canyelles M, Tondo M, Cedó L 2018-10-19 PMC
Dietary Choline Intake: Current State of Knowledge Across the Life Cycle Wiedeman AM, Barr SI, Green TJ 2018-10-16 PMC
Gut Colonization with Methanogenic Archaea Lowers Plasma Trimethylamine N-oxide Concentrations in Apolipoprotein e−/− Mi... Ramezani A, Nolin TD, Barrows IR 2018-10-03 PMC
Abstracts from the 50th European Society of Human Genetics Conference: Electronic Posters 2018-10-01 PMC
Implication of Trimethylamine N-Oxide (TMAO) in Disease: Potential Biomarker or New Therapeutic Target Janeiro MH, Ramírez MJ, Milagro FI 2018-10-01 PMC
Pathogenic functions of host microbiota Rath S, Rud T, Karch A 2018-09-28 PMC
Combined linkage and association analysis identifies rare and low frequency variants for blood pressure at 1q31 Wang H, Nandakumar P, Tekola-Ayele F 2018-09-27 PMC
Antioxidant modifications induced by the new metformin derivative HL156A regulate metabolic reprogramming in SAMP1/kl (-... Kim SA, Lam TG, Yook JI 2018-09-16 PMC
Plasma concentration of trimethylamine-N-oxide and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus Li P, Zhong C, Li S 2018-09-11 PMC
Identification and Quantification of Volatile Ramson-Derived Metabolites in Humans Scheffler L, Sharapa C, Amar T 2018-09-11 PMC
Title Authors Date Link
Hidradenitis suppurativa/Acne inversa – operative Optionen, Rekonstruktionen und Kombinationen mit medikamentösen Therap... Cramer P, Schneider-Burrus S, Kovács M 2021-07-06 PMC
Healing hand ulcers caused by focal spasticity Gupta AD, Addison S 2020-03-05 PMC
Lantox—The Chinese Botulinum Toxin Drug—Complete English Bibliography and Comprehensive Formalised Literature Review Dressler D, Pan L, Su J 2021-05-22 PMC
The use of 33 MHz ultra-high-frequency ultrasonography for the evaluation of sweat glands in the axilla with osmidrosis Shinaoka A, Nakahara R, Saeki M 2021-05-13 PMC
Therapeutic Use of Botulinum Neurotoxins in Dermatology: Systematic Review Martina E, Diotallevi F, Radi G 2021-02-05 PMC
Foray into Concepts of Design and Evaluation of Microemulsions as a Modern Approach for Topical Applications in Acne Pat... Talianu MT, Dinu-Pîrvu CE, Ghica MV 2020-11-19 PMC
Open versus Closed Surgery for Axillary Osmidrosis: A Meta-Analysis of Articles Published in Four Languages Nomura M, Morioka D, Kojima Y 2020-11-11 PMC
Medical crowdfunding in a healthcare system with universal coverage: an exploratory study Lublóy Á 2020-11-09 PMC
The Efficacy and Effectiveness of Non-ablative Light-Based Devices in Hidradenitis Suppurativa: A Systematic Review and ... Jfri A, Saxena A, Rouette J 2020-11-03 PMC
Miscarriage as a Complication of Hidradenitis Suppurativa of the Vulva Al Ghamdi DS 2020-10-29 PMC
Microecological investigation and comparison of two clinical methods to evaluate axillary osmidrosis Du H, Ding S, Gao L 2020-09-21 PMC
A Paradoxical Vasodilatory Nutraceutical Intervention for Prevention and Attenuation of Migraine—A Hypothetical Review Chaliha DR, Vaccarezza M, Takechi R 2020-08-18 PMC
Botulinum Toxin Type B for Hidradenitis Suppurativa: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study Grimstad Ø, Kvammen BØ, Swartling C 2020-08-06 PMC
Using the Hair Removal Laser in the Axillary Region and its Effect on Normal Microbial Flora Fazel Z, Majidpour A, Behrangi E 2020-06-21 PMC
Something to Sweat About: Two Cases of Dupilumab-Induced Hyperhidrosis and Bromhidrosis Rowane M, Valencia R, Schend J 2020-05-20 PMC
Multi-modal treatment strategy for achieving an aesthetic lower face Jeong TK, Chung CH, Min KH 2020-05-15 PMC
Microbiota and Malodor—Etiology and Management Mogilnicka I, Bogucki P, Ufnal M 2020-04-20 PMC
The effects of 755 nm alexandrite laser on skin dryness and pruritus Pancar GS, Kalkan G, Eyupoglu O 2020-03-09 PMC
Hidradenitis Suppurativa: Current Understanding of Pathogenic Mechanisms and Suggestion for Treatment Algorithm Seyed Jafari SM, Hunger RE, Schlapbach C 2020-03-04 PMC
Hidradenitis Suppurativa: a lesser-known cause of AA amyloidosis Helvacı Ö, Güz G, Adışen E PMC
Hidradenitis suppurativa: infection, autoimmunity, or both? Constantinou CA, Fragoulis GE, Nikiphoro... 2019-12-30 PMC
A case of axillary bromhidrosis secondary to trimethylaminuria successfully treated with microwave-based therapy Patel F, Tu YM, Fernandes S 2019-10-07 PMC
Fecal medicines used in traditional medical system of China: a systematic review of their names, original species, tradi... Du H, Kuang TT, Qiu S 2019-09-13 PMC
Miscellaneous Perianal Afflictions Hagerman GF, Silva-Velazco J, Molina-Lop... 2019-08-22 PMC
The Safety and Impact of a Model of Intermittent, Time-Restricted Circadian Fasting (“Ramadan Fasting”) on Hidradenitis ... Damiani G, Mahroum N, Pigatto PD 2019-08-01 PMC
Disseminate Recurrent Folliculitis and Hidradenitis Suppurativa Are Associated Conditions: Results From a Retrospective ... Sechi A, Guglielmo A, Patrizi A 2019-07-31 PMC
A new type of surgery for the treatment of bromhidrosis Wang Y, Sun P, Leng X 2019-05-31 PMC
Systematic review of immunomodulatory therapies for hidradenitis suppurativa Lim SY, Oon HH 2019-05-13 PMC
Modified Suction-Assisted Cartilage Shaver for Axillary Osmidrosis Tseng YJ, Lee CH, Lin SH 2019-05-08 PMC
A Case of Scalp White Piedra Caused by Trichosporon Ovoides Singh A, Nyati A, Mohta A PMC
The Treatment of Axillary Odor: A Network Meta-Analysis Sun P, Wang Y, Bi M 2019-04-14 PMC
Integrated Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analysis of Human Eccrine Sweat Glands Identifies Missing and Novel Proteins Na CH, Sharma N, Madugundu AK 2019-04-12 PMC
Posterior Arm Perforator Flap for Axillary Reconstruction After Hidradenitis Suppurativa Excision Sirvan SS, Demir IA, Irmak F 2019-02-21 PMC
The Effectiveness of Local Surgical Technique in Treatment of Axillary Bromhidrosis Van TN, Manh TN, Minh PP 2019-01-29 PMC
Hurley III Hidradenitis Suppurativa Has an Aggressive Disease Course Vanlaerhoven AM, Ardon CB, van Straalen ... 2018-08-27 PMC
Sphingomonas paucimobilis empyema caused by remote foreign body aspiration Yuan J, Treadwell T 2018-04-11 PMC
Versajet-Assisted Hydraulic Epilation Through Small Incisions for Axillary Osmidrosis Han JH, Kim JK, Yoon KC 2018-02-20 PMC
Safety of Adalimumab Dosed Every Week and Every Other Week: Focus on Patients with Hidradenitis Suppurativa or Psoriasis Ryan C, Sobell JM, Leonardi CL 2018-01-27 PMC
Intralesional Diode Laser 1064 nm for the Treatment of Hidradenitis Suppurativa: A Report of Twenty Patients Fabbrocini G, França K, Lotti T 2018-01-07 PMC
Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase-Mediated Deoxyuridine Triphosphate Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) Assay to Characterize... Lee JM, Park JH, Kim BY 2017-12-26 PMC
Case series: The modified skoog approach for definitive management of severe hidradenitis suppurativa of the axilla Young Sing Q, Mohammed F, Mooteeram J 2017-10-25 PMC
Laser-induced synlabia, cryptomenorrhea, and urine retention: A case report and literature review Fadul-Elahi T, Janjua NB PMC
Effectiveness and Complications of Improved Liposuction–Curettage Through Mini-Incisions for the Treatment of Axillary O... Yang H, Xu G, Huang CL 2017-09-20 PMC
Dermoscopy of Yellow Concretions on Axillary Hair Cervantes J, Johr RJ, Tosti A 2017-08-22 PMC
The curative effect of liposuction curettage in the treatment of bromhidrosis: A meta-analysis Zhang L, Chen F, Kong J 2017-08-18 PMC
A novel organotypic 3D sweat gland model with physiological functionality Klaka P, Grüdl S, Banowski B 2017-08-10 PMC
Hidradenitis suppurativa: an update on connecting the tracts Smith MK, Nicholson CL, Parks-Miller A 2017-07-28 PMC
Descriptive Epidemiology of Hidradenitis Suppurativa in Greece: A Study of 152 Cases Katoulis AC, Liakou AI, Rotsiamis N 2017-05-17 PMC
A missense variant of the ABCC11 gene is associated with Axillary Osmidrosis susceptibility and clinical phenotypes in t... Ren Y, Liu W, Chen J 2017-05-09 PMC
Hidradenitis suppurativa: from pathogenesis to diagnosis and treatment Napolitano M, Megna M, Timoshchuk EA 2017-04-19 PMC
Medical and Surgical Treatment of Hidradenitis Suppurativa: A Review Scuderi N, Monfrecola A, Dessy LA 2017-03-21 PMC
Oxybutynin as an alternative treatment for hyperhidrosis Delort S, Marchi E, Corrêa MA PMC
Clinical and Molecular Evidence of ABCC11 Protein Expression in Axillary Apocrine Glands of Patients with Axillary Osmid... Toyoda Y, Takada T, Gomi T 2017-02-15 PMC
Working Up a Good Sweat – The Challenges of Standardising Sweat Collection for Metabolomics Analysis Hussain JN, Mantri N, Cohen MM PMC
Botulinum Toxin Off-Label Use in Dermatology: A Review Campanati A, Martina E, Giuliodori K 2017-02-01 PMC
Comparative Study of Efficacy and Safety of Botulinum Toxin a Injections and Subcutaneous Curettage in the Treatment of ... Budamakuntla L, Loganathan E, George A PMC
MMP8 Is Increased in Lesions and Blood of Acne Inversa Patients: A Potential Link to Skin Destruction and Metabolic Alte... Tsaousi A, Witte E, Witte K 2016-10-23 PMC
The Effect of Smoking and Age on the Response to First-Line Therapy of Hidradenitis Suppurativa: An Institutional Retros... Denny G, Anadkat M 2016-09-28 PMC
Nederlands-Engels Kerkhof PL 2016-08-18 PMC
Engels-Nederlands Kerkhof PL 2016-08-18 PMC
Clinical and epidemiological features of coryneform skin infections at a tertiary hospital Pinto M, Hundi GK, Bhat RM PMC
Diagnosis of Human Axillary Osmidrosis by Genotyping of the Human ABCC11 Gene: Clinical Practice and Basic Scientific Ev... Toyoda Y, Gomi T, Nakagawa H 2016-02-23 PMC
Pitted keratolysis de Almeida Jr HL, Siqueira RN, Meireles ... PMC
Treatment of Diffuse Planar Xanthoma of the Face after One Session of 1,444-nm Neodymium-Doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet ... Lee JM, Chun SH, So BJ 2015-12-07 PMC
Perianal Crohn’s disease and hidradenitis suppurativa: a possible common immunological scenario Giudici F, Maggi L, Santi R 2015-07-22 PMC
Papillon–Lefèvre syndrome: clinical presentation and management options Sreeramulu B, Shyam ND, Ajay P 2015-07-15 PMC
Quality of life in patients with primary axillary hyperhidrosis before and after treatment with fractionated microneedle... Abtahi-Naeini B, Naeini FF, Adibi N PMC
Actualities of Management of Aural, Nasal, and Throat Foreign Bodies Oreh A, Folorunsho D, Ibekwe T PMC
Rapid Stress System Drives Chemical Transfer of Fear from Sender to Receiver de Groot JH, Smeets MA, Semin GR 2015-02-27 PMC
Minimally Invasive Surgery for Axillary Osmidrosis Using a Combination of Subcutaneous Tissue Removal and a 1,444-nm Nd:... Lee SG, Ryu HJ, Kim IH 2014-11-26 PMC
Surgical treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis by suction-curettage of sweat glands de Rezende RM, Luz FB PMC
Management of hyperhidrosis Stashak AB, Brewer JD 2014-10-29 PMC
Treatment of uncommon sites of focal primary hyperhidrosis: experience with pharmacological therapy using oxybutynin Teivelis MP, Wolosker N, Krutman M PMC
Zinc Therapy in Dermatology: A Review Gupta M, Mahajan VK, Mehta KS 2014-07-10 PMC
Therapeutic effect of Botulinum toxin-A in 88 patients with Trigeminal Neuralgia with 14-month follow-up Li S, Lian YJ, Chen Y 2014-06-22 PMC
A Prospective, Long-Term Follow-Up Study of 1,444 nm Nd:YAG Laser: A New Modality for Treating Axillary Bromhidrosis Jung SK, Jang HW, Kim HJ 2014-04-30 PMC
Evaluation of anxiety and depression prevalence in patients with primary severe hyperhidrosis Bragança GM, Lima SO, Pinto AF Neto PMC
Hidradenitis suppurativa: a common and burdensome, yet under-recognised, inflammatory skin disease Dufour DN, Emtestam L, Jemec GB 2014-02-24 PMC
Subdermal Coagulation Treatment of Axillary Bromhidrosis by 1,444 nm Nd:YAG Laser: A Comparison with Surgical Treatment Lee KG, Kim SA, Yi SM 2014-02-17 PMC
Sweat Gland Progenitors in Development, Homeostasis, and Wound Repair Lu C, Fuchs E PMC
Turning the tide: a history and review of hyperhidrosis treatment Lee KY, Levell NJ 2014-01-07 PMC
Acne inversa goes an extra mile than hidradenitis suppurativa Witmanowski H, Szychta P, Stępniewski S 2013-08-27 PMC
Characterization of Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium Clusters in the Human Axillary Region Callewaert C, Kerckhof FM, Granitsiotis ... 2013-08-12 PMC
Skin care: Historical and contemporary views AlGhamdi KM, AlHomoudi FA, Khurram H 2013-03-14 PMC
Acne inversa of the scrotum and penis – aggressive urological treatment Gibas A, Matuszewski M, Michajłowski I 2012-09-04 PMC
Treatment of Axillary Osmidrosis Using a Subcutaneous Pulsed Nd-YAG Laser Kim D, Kim J, Yeo H 2012-03-14 PMC
Advances in Electronic-Nose Technologies Developed for Biomedical Applications Wilson AD, Baietto M 2011-01-19 PMC
Multiple Intranasal Foreign Bodies: An Incidental Diagnosis Habibullah MA, Bhat SS, Hegde K S 2010-09-15 PMC
Syringomas Treated by Intralesional Insulated Needles without Epidermal Damage Hong SK, Lee HJ, Cho SH 2010-08-05 PMC
Psychological interventions in the management of common skin conditions Shenefelt PD 2010-03-26 PMC
Comorbidities of hidradenitis suppurativa (acne inversa) Fimmel S, Zouboulis CC PMC
A prospective clinical trial of open label etanercept for the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa Lee RA, Dommasch E, Treat J 2009-01-31 PMC
Foreign bodies in the nasal cavities: a comprehensive review of the aetiology, diagnostic pointers, and therapeutic meas... Kalan A, Tariq M PMC
Lotions and Potions: Pearls of Topical Therapy Ross JB PMC
Smell as a diagnostic marker Liddell K PMC
Simple surgery for axillary hyperhidrosis (two cases). Weaver PC, Copeman PW PMC
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Symmetrical Lividity of the Soles Kalz F, Friedman H PMC
Reviews and Notices 1886-02-27 PMC
Title Authors Date Link
Role of Hydrogen Sulfide in the Endocrine System Chen HJ, Ngowi EE, Qian L 2021-07-16 PMC
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Periodontal therapy as adjunctive treatment for gastric Helicobacter pylori infection Ren Q, Yan X, Zhou Y 2016-02-07 PMC
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Estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα) is a key regulator of intestinal homeostasis and protects against colitis Tran A, Scholtes C, Songane M 2021-07-23 PMC
Genome-wide investigation identifies a rare copy-number variant burden associated with human spina bifida Wolujewicz P, Aguiar-Pulido V, AbdelAlee... 2021-03-08 PMC
High L-Carnitine Levels Impede Viral Control in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection Gu S, Fu X, Ye G 2021-06-21 PMC
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Connectivity mapping of glomerular proteins identifies dimethylaminoparthenolide as a new inhibitor of diabetic kidney d... Klein J, Caubet C, Camus M 2020-09-10 PMC
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Metabolic pathway alterations in microvascular endothelial cells in response to hypoxia Cohen EB, Geck RC, Toker A 2020-07-09 PMC
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Precision medicine integrating whole-genome sequencing, comprehensive metabolomics, and advanced imaging Hou YC, Yu HC, Martin R 2020-01-24 PMC
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Combined Omics Reveals That Disruption of the Selenocysteine Lyase Gene Affects Amino Acid Pathways in Mice Seale LA, Khadka VS, Menor M 2019-10-26 PMC
Genomic Basis of Convergent Island Phenotypes in Boa Constrictors Card DC, Adams RH, Schield DR 2019-10-23 PMC
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Genome-wide promoter DNA Methylation Profiling of Hepatocellular Carcinomas Arising Either Spontaneously or due to Chron... Kovi RC, Bhusari S, Mav D 2019-07-05 PMC
The effect of breed and diet type on the global transcriptome of hepatic tissue in beef cattle divergent for feed effici... Higgins MG, Kenny DA, Fitzsimons C 2019-06-26 PMC
Glycine Metabolism and Its Alterations in Obesity and Metabolic Diseases Alves A, Bassot A, Bulteau AL 2019-06-16 PMC
An acyl-CoA dehydrogenase microplate activity assay using recombinant porcine electron transfer flavoprotein Zhang Y, Mohsen AW, Kochersperger C 2019-06-10 PMC
Long noncoding RNA actin filament‐associated protein 1 antisense RNA 1 promotes malignant phenotype through binding with... Yu S, Yang D, Ye Y 2019-05-29 PMC
Analyses of a Panel of Transcripts Identified From a Small Sample Size and Construction of RNA Networks in Hepatocellula... Sheng Z, Wang X, Xu G 2019-05-08 PMC
Accumulation of rare coding variants in genes implicated in risk of human cleft lip with or without cleft palate Marini NJ, Asrani K, Yang W 2019-05-07 PMC
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Adaptive effect of sericin on hepatic mitochondrial conformation through its regulation of apoptosis, autophagy and ener... Ampawong S, Isarangkul D, Reamtong O 2018-10-08 PMC
Targeting Hepatic Protein Carbonylation and Oxidative Stress Occurring on Diet-Induced Metabolic Diseases through the Su... Muñoz S, Méndez L, Dasilva G 2018-09-26 PMC
2D DIGE proteomic analysis reveals fasting‐induced protein remodeling through organ‐specific transcription factor(s) in ... Kamata S, Yamamoto J, Ohtani H 2018-08-13 PMC
Alterations of methionine metabolism in hepatocarcinogenesis: the emergent role of glycine N-methyltransferase in liver ... Simile MM, Latte G, Feo CF 2018-07-12 PMC
Betaine and Choline Improve Lipid Homeostasis in Obesity by Participation in Mitochondrial Oxidative Demethylation Sivanesan S, Taylor A, Zhang J 2018-07-10 PMC
Identification of genes associated with cortical malformation using a transposon-mediated somatic mutagenesis screen in ... Lu IL, Chen C, Tung CY 2018-06-27 PMC
Metabolic Effects of Betaine: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Betaine Supplementation in Prediabetes Grizales AM, Patti ME, Lin AP 2018-05-31 PMC
Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of milk production using integrative transcriptomic and proteomic analyses: impr... Dai W, Wang Q, Zhao F 2018-05-29 PMC
The Urinary Sarcosine/Creatinine Ratio is a Potential Diagnostic and Prognostic Marker in Prostate Cancer Wang M, Zou L, Liang J 2018-05-09 PMC
Multiomics biomarkers for the prediction of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease severity Pirola CJ, Sookoian S 2018-04-21 PMC
Genome-wide association study and functional analysis of feet and leg conformation traits in Nellore cattle Vargas G, Neves HH, Camargo GM 2018-04-20 PMC
Optimisation of quantitative miRNA panels to consolidate the diagnostic surveillance of HBV-related hepatocellular carci... Tat Trung N, Duong DC, Tong HV 2018-04-19 PMC
Differential expression of genes identified by suppression subtractive hybridization in liver and adipose tissue of gerb... Gong J, Du X, Li Z 2018-02-02 PMC
Title Authors Date Link
Bifidobacterium Longum: Protection against Inflammatory Bowel Disease Yao S, Zhao Z, Wang W 2021-07-23 PMC
Neuromodulation Management of Chronic Neuropathic Pain in The Central Nervous system Yu K, Niu X, He B 2020-06-10 PMC
AMFormulaS: an intelligent retrieval system for traditional Chinese medicine formulas Cui Y, Gao B, Liu L 2021-07-30 PMC
A new method for testing reproducibility in systematic reviews was developed, but needs more testing Pieper D, Heß S, Faggion CM Jr 2021-07-29 PMC
Bioengineering of LAB vector expressing Haemolysin co-regulated protein (Hcp): a strategic approach to control gut colon... Gorain C, Khan A, Singh A 2021-07-30 PMC
A Metagenome-Wide Association Study of the Gut Microbiome and Metabolic Syndrome Qin Q, Yan S, Yang Y 2021-07-16 PMC
Potential Novel Therapies for Neurodevelopmental Diseases Targeting Oxidative Stress Curpan AS, Luca AC, Ciobica A 2021-07-22 PMC
Utilizing machine learning with knockoff filtering to extract significant metabolites in Crohn’s disease with a publicly... Bin Masud S, Jenkins C, Hussey E 2021-07-29 PMC
Predictive Value of Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) on Cardiovascular Events in Patients with COVID-19 Zhan L, Liu Y, Cheng Y 2021-07-24 PMC
Elevated LINC00909 Promotes Tumor Progression of Ovarian Cancer via Regulating the miR-23b-3p/MRC2 Axis Yang X, Wu G, Yang F 2021-07-21 PMC
Pouchitis: Clinical Features, Diagnosis, and Treatment Gionchetti P, Calabrese C, Laureti S 2021-07-24 PMC
Short Sleep Duration and Its Association with Obesity and Other Metabolic Risk Factors in Kuwaiti Urban Adults Al-Rashed F, Sindhu S, Al Madhoun A 2021-07-24 PMC
Potential role of ghrelin on the micturition reflex in rats Honda M, Shimizu R, Nishikawa R 2021-04-09 PMC
Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Prevalence and Risk Factors in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia Arishi AM, Elmakki EE, Hakami OM 2021-06-28 PMC
Multi-omic profiling of plasma reveals molecular alterations in children with COVID-19 Wang C, Li X, Ning W 2021-07-06 PMC
Clinical Acupoint Selection for the Treatment of Functional Constipation by Massage and Acupuncture Based on Smart Medic... Sun F, Liu Z, Zhang W 2021-07-16 PMC
Effects of the Cistanche tubulosa Aqueous Extract on the Gut Microbiota of Mice with Intestinal Disorders Bao X, Bai D, Liu X 2021-07-14 PMC
Making Childhood Obesity a Priority: A Qualitative Study of Healthcare Professionals' Perspectives on Facilitating Commu... Serban CL, Putnoky S, Ek A 2021-07-15 PMC
Efficacy of Acupuncture in the Treatment of Chronic Abdominal Pain Berger AA, Liu Y, Jin K 2021-03-17 PMC
Interoception and Emotion: A Potential Mechanism for Intervention With Manual Treatment Pasin Neto H, Bicalho E, Bortolazzo G 2021-06-25 PMC
Predictors of Early Readmissions in Hospitalized Patients With Gastroparesis: A Nationwide Analysis Pavurala RB, Stanich PP, Krishna SG 2021-07-30 PMC
The Usefulness of Symptom-based Subtypes of Functional Dyspepsia for Predicting Underlying Pathophysiologic Mechanisms a... Lee KJ 2021-07-30 PMC
Inter-hemispheric Functional Connections Are More Vulnerable to Attack Than Structural Connection in Patients With Irrit... Liu G, Li S, Chen N 2021-07-30 PMC
Role of Bile Reflux in Functional Dyspepsia: Areas That Need Further Research Kang SJ 2021-07-30 PMC
Effect of a Multispecies Probiotic Mixture on the Growth and Incidence of Diarrhea, Immune Function, and Fecal Microbiot... Wu Y, Wang L, Luo R 2021-07-14 PMC
Functional Disruptions of the Brain in Low Back Pain: A Potential Imaging Biomarker of Functional Disability Lamichhane B, Jayasekera D, Jakes R 2021-07-14 PMC
Differential Expression of microRNAs Correlates With the Severity of Experimental Autoimmune Cystitis Kumar V, Kiran S, Shamran HA 2021-07-14 PMC
A New Target Organ of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis Chronic Infection: The Intestine dos Santos AG, da Silva MG, Carneiro EL 2021-07-14 PMC
Effects of Different Treatment of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Techniques on Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis in Rats Zhu F, Ke Y, Luo Y 2021-07-14 PMC
Regulation of the Autonomic Nervous System on Intestine Duan H, Cai X, Luan Y 2021-07-14 PMC
Brain Frequency-Specific Changes in the Spontaneous Neural Activity Are Associated With Cognitive Impairment in Patients... Ren F, Ma W, Zong W 2021-07-14 PMC
Fibromyalgia and Associated Disorders: From Pain to Chronic Suffering, From Subjective Hypersensitivity to Hypersensitiv... Maugars Y, Berthelot JM, Le Goff B 2021-07-14 PMC
Microbiota and epigenetics: promising therapeutic approaches? El-Sayed A, Aleya L, Kamel M 2021-07-28 PMC
Associations of hair cortisol concentrations with paediatric appendicitis Gudjonsdottir J, Runnäs M, Hagander L 2021-07-27 PMC
Increased hypertension following hysterectomy among reproductive women in India Halli SS, Singh DP, Biradar RA 2020-11-24 PMC
Placebo response and effect in randomized clinical trials: meta-research with focus on contextual effects Hafliðadóttir SH, Juhl CB, Nielsen SM 2021-07-26 PMC
The Chinese herbal formula Huoxiang Zhengqi for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (CHAIRS): a study protocol... Guo X, Xuan M, Zheng H 2021-07-26 PMC
Herbal therapy for ameliorating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease via rebuilding the intestinal microecology Yang XF, Lu M, You L 2021-07-27 PMC
Faecal biomarkers in type 1 diabetes with and without diabetic nephropathy Winther SA, Mannerla MM, Frimodt-Møller ... 2021-07-26 PMC
Management of Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome in the Absence of Randomized Controlled Trials Kichloo A, Aljadah M, Grubb B 2021-07-15 PMC
Inflammatory effect on the gastrointestinal system associated with COVID-19 Delgado-Gonzalez P, Gonzalez-Villarreal ... 2021-07-14 PMC
Glutamate and depression: Reflecting a deepening knowledge of the gut and brain effects of a ubiquitous molecule Onaolapo AY, Onaolapo OJ 2021-07-19 PMC
Constipation induced gut microbiota dysbiosis exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice Lin X, Liu Y, Ma L 2021-07-23 PMC
Association between Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and Diabetic Retinopathy: A 5-Year Retrospective Case-Control Stud... Ma Y, Li S, Zhang A 2021-07-06 PMC
Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Rifaximin Therapy for Lowering Gut-Derived Cardiovascular Toxins and Inflammatio... Kimber C, Zhang S, Johnson C 2020-11-25 PMC
Efficacy and safety of PT20, an iron-based phosphate binder, for the treatment of hyperphosphataemia: a randomized, doub... Sampson M, Faria N, Powell JJ 2020-07-11 PMC
Semi-Individualized Acupuncture for Insomnia Disorder and Oxidative Stress: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Sham-Controlled ... Yeung WF, Yu BY, Yuen JW 2021-07-21 PMC
A Comprehensive Review of Transaminitis and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Gadour E, Hassan Z, Gadour R 2021-07-23 PMC
Looking into key bacterial proteins involved in gut dysbiosis Zeng XY, Li M 2021-07-20 PMC
Knowledge & Awareness regarding colorectal cancer among health and allied students of King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University... Aga SS, Khan MA, Alsulimani EF 2021-07-02 PMC
Curriculum for Masters in General Practice – Bhutan Adhikari CL 2021-07-02 PMC
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Identification and engraftment of new bacterial strains by shotgun metagenomic sequence analysis in patients with recurr... Verma S, Dutta SK, Firnberg E 2021-07-12 PMC
Laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy for obstructive defecation syndrome: Follow-up in the Indian population Mandovra P, Kalikar V, Patankar RV 2020-09-05 PMC
Medical Insights from Posts About Irritable Bowel Syndrome by Adolescent Patients and Their Parents: Topic Modeling and ... Zhong B, Liu Q 2021-06-09 PMC
Pain Management in Children During the COVID-19 Pandemic Richardson PA, Kundu A 2021-07-26 PMC
Differential Effects of Vagal Activation on the Sinus and Atrioventricular Nodes: Report of 2 Cases Suggs LD, Tonnessen JB, Pavri BB 2020-08-05 PMC
Self-Medication with Ganoderma lucidum (“Reishi”) to Combat Parkinson's Disease Symptoms: A Single Case Study Kuypers KP 2021-07-19 PMC
Spontaneous Left Atrial Thrombus Formation on the Catheter Delivery System During WATCHMAN Implantation Patel H, Castellanos LR, Golts E 2020-03-18 PMC
16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of gut microbiota in gestational diabetes mellitus and their correlation with disease ... Wei J, Qing Y, Zhou H 2021-07-24 PMC
Benserazide-induced diarrhea – A retrospective clinical study Csoti I, Koleva-Alazeh N 2020-12-23 PMC
Targeting neurons in the gastrointestinal tract to treat Parkinson's disease Hauser RA, Sutherland D, Madrid JA 2019-07-02 PMC
Exploring patient views of empathic optimistic communication for osteoarthritis in primary care: a qualitative interview... Lyness E, Vennik JL, Bishop FL 2021-05-05 PMC
Effect of a Nutritionally Balanced Diet Comprising Whole Grains and Vegetables Alone or in Combination with Probiotic Su... Oh YJ, Nam K, Kim Y 2021-06-30 PMC
The Relationship between Functional Constipation and Major Dietary Patterns in Iranian Adults: Findings from the Large C... Gholizadeh E, Keshteli AH, Esmaillzadeh ... 2021-06-30 PMC
Cannabinoids: Current and Future Options to Treat Chronic and Chemotherapy-Induced Neuropathic Pain Blanton HL, Brelsfoard J, DeTurk N PMC
Tetrodotoxin: A New Strategy to Treat Visceral Pain? Campos-Ríos A, Rueda-Ruzafa L, Herrera-P... 2021-07-16 PMC
Therapeutic Promises of Medicinal Plants in Bangladesh and Their Bioactive Compounds against Ulcers and Inflammatory Dis... Ahmed SR, Rabbee MF, Roy A 2021-07-01 PMC
Glucuronides Hydrolysis by Intestinal Microbial β-Glucuronidases (GUS) Is Affected by Sampling, Enzyme Preparation, Buff... Ebuzoeme C, Etim I, Ikimi A 2021-07-08 PMC
Psychological and Gastrointestinal Symptoms of Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome Undergoing a Low-FODMAP Diet: The ... Prospero L, Riezzo G, Linsalata M 2021-07-19 PMC
Are Probiotics and Prebiotics Safe for Use during Pregnancy and Lactation? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Sheyholislami H, Connor KL 2021-07-13 PMC
Effect of Low FODMAPs Diet on Irritable Bowel Syndromes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials Hahn J, Choi J, Chang MJ 2021-07-19 PMC
Use of Different Food Classification Systems to Assess the Association between Ultra-Processed Food Consumption and Card... Martinez-Perez C, San-Cristobal R, Guall... 2021-07-20 PMC
Gastrointestinal Digestion of a Grape Pomace Extract: Impact on Intestinal Barrier Permeability and Interaction with Gut... Taladrid D, González de Llano D, Zorraqu... 2021-07-19 PMC
Modulation of Neuroinflammation by the Gut Microbiota in Prion and Prion-Like Diseases Trichka J, Zou WQ 2021-07-13 PMC
Immune-Modulatory Effects upon Oral Application of Cumin-Essential-Oil to Mice Suffering from Acute Campylobacteriosis Mousavi S, Weschka D, Bereswill S 2021-06-29 PMC
Guidelines on Standard and Therapeutic Diets for Adults in Hospitals by the French Association of Nutritionist Dietician... Vaillant MF, Alligier M, Baclet N 2021-07-15 PMC
Probiotics in Pediatrics. A Review and Practical Guide Depoorter L, Vandenplas Y 2021-06-24 PMC
Dietary Fibre Intervention for Gut Microbiota, Sleep, and Mental Health in Adults with Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Scopi... Yan R, Andrew L, Marlow E 2021-06-23 PMC
Do Bioactive Food Compound with Avena sativa L., Linum usitatissimum L. and Glycine max L. Supplementation with Moringa ... Ferreira RD, Mendonça LA, dos Santos C 2021-07-02 PMC
Challenges of Monitoring the Gluten-Free Diet Adherence in the Management and Follow-Up of Patients with Celiac Disease Wieser H, Ruiz-Carnicer Á, Segura V 2021-06-30 PMC
Edible Mushrooms and Beta-Glucans: Impact on Human Health Cerletti C, Esposito S, Iacoviello L 2021-06-25 PMC
The Modification of the Gut Microbiota via Selected Specific Diets in Patients with Crohn’s Disease Starz E, Wzorek K, Folwarski M 2021-06-22 PMC
New Insights into Non-Dietary Treatment in Celiac Disease: Emerging Therapeutic Options Segura V, Ruiz-Carnicer Á, Sousa C 2021-06-23 PMC
Histamine Intolerance—The More We Know the Less We Know. A Review Hrubisko M, Danis R, Huorka M 2021-06-29 PMC
Effects of Fermented Milk Containing Lacticaseibacillus paracasei Strain Shirota on Constipation in Patients with Depres... Zhang X, Chen S, Zhang M 2021-06-29 PMC
The Interplay between Nutrition, Innate Immunity, and the Commensal Microbiota in Adaptive Intestinal Morphogenesis Bayer F, Dremova O, Khuu MP 2021-06-26 PMC
The Effect of A Whey-Protein and Galacto-Oligosaccharides Based Product on Parameters of Sleep Quality, Stress, and Gut ... Schaafsma A, Mallee L, van den Belt M 2021-06-27 PMC
Effects of the Traditional Mediterranean Diet in Patients with Otitis Media with Effusion Calatayud-Sáez FM, Calatayud B, Calatayu... 2021-06-24 PMC
Bovine Colostrum Applications in Sick and Healthy People: A Systematic Review Guberti M, Botti S, Capuzzo MT 2021-06-25 PMC
Impact of Glucosamine Supplementation on Gut Health Moon JM, Finnegan P, Stecker RA 2021-06-24 PMC
Mediterranean Diet to Prevent the Development of Colon Diseases: A Meta-Analysis of Gut Microbiota Studies Illescas O, Rodríguez-Sosa M, Gariboldi ... 2021-06-29 PMC
Blinding in Clinical Trials: Seeing the Big Picture Monaghan TF, Agudelo CW, Rahman SN 2021-06-24 PMC
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy of Patients with Somatic Symptoms—Diagnostic and Therapeutic Difficulties Orzechowska A, Maruszewska P, Gałecki P 2021-07-17 PMC
Parental Response to Only Children: Breaking the Stereotypes Levy RL, Murphy TB, Kamp K 2021-07-17 PMC
Resveratrol Is a Natural Inhibitor of Human Intestinal Mast Cell Activation and Phosphorylation of Mitochondrial ERK1/2 ... Bilotta S, Paruchuru LB, Feilhauer K 2021-07-16 PMC
Disease-Alleviating Effects of Peroral Activated Charcoal Treatment in Acute Murine Campylobacteriosis Bereswill S, Mousavi S, Weschka D 2021-06-30 PMC
Hidden Role of Gut Microbiome Dysbiosis in Schizophrenia: Antipsychotics or Psychobiotics as Therapeutics? Munawar N, Ahsan K, Muhammad K 2021-07-18 PMC
Nutritional Profiling and Preliminary Bioactivity Screening of Five Micro-Algae Strains Cultivated in Northwest Europe Verspreet J, Soetemans L, Gargan C 2021-07-01 PMC
Isolation and Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeasts from Typical Bulgarian Sourdoughs Petkova M, Stefanova P, Gotcheva V 2021-06-22 PMC
Title Authors Date Link
Genital and Intertriginous Rashes Refractory to Antimicrobial Treatments: Have You Thought about Crohn's Disease? O'Farrell C, Roberts A, Riera Canales C 2021-07-23 PMC
Bifidobacterium Longum: Protection against Inflammatory Bowel Disease Yao S, Zhao Z, Wang W 2021-07-23 PMC
Not “Much Room” in the Heart: A Rare Case of a Massive Intracardiac Candida Mass Jafry AH, Ijaz SH, Mazhar M 2021-07-23 PMC
New Evidence for Artemisia absinthium L. Application in Gastrointestinal Ailments: Ethnopharmacology, Antimicrobial Capa... Ivanov M, Gašić U, Stojković D 2021-07-22 PMC
Thrombosis in Psoriasis: Cutaneous Cytokine Production as a Potential Driving Force of Haemostatic Dysregulation and Sub... Visser MJ, Tarr G, Pretorius E 2021-07-16 PMC
Development and validation of a prognostic 40-day mortality risk model among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 Berry DA, Ip A, Lewis BE 2021-07-30 PMC
Host Responses to Mucosal Biofilms in the Lung and Gut Domingue JC, Drewes JL, Merlo CA 2020-02-28 PMC
Clinical Assessment of Gastrointestinal Involvement in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis Kaniecki T, Abdi T, McMahan ZH 2020-10-29 PMC
Neuromodulation Management of Chronic Neuropathic Pain in The Central Nervous system Yu K, Niu X, He B 2020-06-10 PMC
A comprehensive approach for microbiota and health monitoring in mouse colonies using metagenomic shotgun sequencing Scavizzi F, Bassi C, Lupini L 2021-07-29 PMC
Implications of gender-based variabilities in bone mineral density and hemoglobin levels Zhou Y, Liu S, Wang X 2021-07-30 PMC
Correction to: The burden and management of anemia in Greek patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a retrospective, m... Foteinogiannopoulou K, Karmiris K, Axiar... 2021-07-29 PMC
Profiling non-coding RNA levels with clinical classifiers in pediatric Crohn’s disease Pelia R, Venkateswaran S, Matthews JD 2021-07-29 PMC
Titanium dioxide particles from the diet: involvement in the genesis of inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cance... Barreau F, Tisseyre C, Ménard S 2021-07-30 PMC
Bioengineering of LAB vector expressing Haemolysin co-regulated protein (Hcp): a strategic approach to control gut colon... Gorain C, Khan A, Singh A 2021-07-30 PMC
Vedolizumab combined with surgical resection successfully treated perforating Crohn’s disease with peritoneal space to r... Chung MW, Chen CM, Hsu JT 2021-07-29 PMC
Acetylsalicylic Acid Compared with Enoxaparin for the Prevention of Thrombosis and Mechanical Ventilation in COVID-19 Pa... Abdelwahab HW, Shaltout SW, Sayed Ahmed ... 2021-07-30 PMC
Loss of IL-34 Expression Indicates Poor Prognosis in Patients With Lung Adenocarcinoma Wang Z, Zhu J, Wang T 2021-07-16 PMC
Mechanism of Immunoregulatory Properties of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide in the K/BxN Mice Model of Autoimmune Arthriti... Leceta J, Garin MI, Conde C 2021-07-16 PMC
Intestinal Fibrosis and Gut Microbiota: Clues From Other Organs Zhan S, Li N, Liu C 2021-07-16 PMC
A Metagenome-Wide Association Study of the Gut Microbiome and Metabolic Syndrome Qin Q, Yan S, Yang Y 2021-07-16 PMC
Aucuboside Inhibits the Generation of Th17 Cells in Mice Colitis Mei C, Wang X, Meng F 2021-07-16 PMC
Does the Internet Use Improve the Mental Health of Chinese Older Adults? Xie L, Yang HL, Lin XY 2021-07-16 PMC
Treatment of COVID-19 in Patients With Sarcoidosis Kondle S, Hou T, Manansala M 2021-07-16 PMC
Gut–Liver Axis: Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells Function as the Hepatic Barrier in Colitis-Induced Liver Injury Wang Y, Zhang Y, Liu Y 2021-07-16 PMC
Thiopurines in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. How to Optimize Thiopurines in the Biologic Era? Gargallo-Puyuelo CJ, Laredo V, Gomollón ... 2021-07-16 PMC
Uncovering Potential lncRNAs and mRNAs in the Progression From Acute Myocardial Infarction to Myocardial Fibrosis to Hea... Wang S, Wang E, Chen Q 2021-07-16 PMC
Age-Matching in Pediatric Fecal Matter Transplants MacLellan AD, Finlay BB, Appel-Cresswell... 2021-07-16 PMC
Humoral Immune Response to Messenger RNA COVID-19 Vaccines Among Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease Kappelman MD, Weaver K, Boccieri M 2021-06-15 PMC
Kidney Autotransplantation for Treatment of Ureteric Obstruction: A Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature Joshi P, Lin J, Sura T 2021-07-21 PMC
Potential Novel Therapies for Neurodevelopmental Diseases Targeting Oxidative Stress Curpan AS, Luca AC, Ciobica A 2021-07-22 PMC
Gastrointestinal manifestations during COVID-19 virus infection: A Moroccan prospective study Tarik A, Soukaina R, Samir M 2021-07-30 PMC
Host metabolic reprogramming in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection: A systems biology approach Moolamalla ST, Balasubramanian R, Chauha... 2021-07-30 PMC
Differences in immune status and fecal SCFA between Indonesian stunted children and children with normal nutritional sta... Surono IS, Jalal F, Bahri S 2021-07-29 PMC
Utilizing machine learning with knockoff filtering to extract significant metabolites in Crohn’s disease with a publicly... Bin Masud S, Jenkins C, Hussey E 2021-07-29 PMC
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Population-Based Evidence From a Western Canadian Province of the Decreasing Incidence Rates and Trends of Inflammatory ... Osei JA, Peña-Sánchez JN, Fowler SA 2020-08-21 PMC
Risk Factors for Developing Hidradenitis Suppurativa in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Retrospective Case–C... Tandon P, Govardhanam V, Gallinger Z 2020-07-28 PMC
Relation of therapies for ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis to risk of myocardial infarction: a nested case... Stovall R, Peloquin C, Felson D 2021-07-29 PMC
PfHRP2 detection using plasmonic optrodes: performance analysis Loyez M, Wells M, Hambÿe S 2021-07-28 PMC
Predictive Value of Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) on Cardiovascular Events in Patients with COVID-19 Zhan L, Liu Y, Cheng Y 2021-07-24 PMC
Hydromethanolic Crude Extract of the Leaf of Urtica simensis Hochst. ex. A. Rich. (Urticaceae) Acquires Appreciable Anti... Sisay W, Andargie Y, Molla M 2021-07-20 PMC
RNA-seq and In Vitro Experiments Reveal the Protective Effect of Curcumin against 5-Fluorouracil-Induced Intestinal Muco... Wang XY, Zhang B, Lu Y 2021-07-21 PMC
Circulating IL-17 Level Is Positively Associated with Disease Activity in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A ... Yin R, Xu R, Ding L 2021-07-21 PMC
Release and Actions of Inflammatory Exosomes in Pulmonary Emphysema: Potential Therapeutic Target of Acupuncture Zou Y, Bhat OM, Yuan X 2021-07-24 PMC
Pouchitis: Clinical Features, Diagnosis, and Treatment Gionchetti P, Calabrese C, Laureti S 2021-07-24 PMC
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Oxidative Stress in Cerebrospinal Fluid During Treatment in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Dewan P, Chaudhary P, Gomber S 2021-06-28 PMC
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A Case of Adalimumab-Induced Granulomatous Interstitial Nephritis Plant R, Rafi Ahmed A, Mchale T 2021-06-28 PMC
Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Prevalence and Risk Factors in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia Arishi AM, Elmakki EE, Hakami OM 2021-06-28 PMC
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Molecular imaging of fibroblast activation protein after myocardial infarction using the novel radiotracer [68Ga]MHLL1 Langer LB, Hess A, Korkmaz Z 2021-06-22 PMC
Twist1 contributes to developing and sustaining corticosteroid resistance in ulcerative colitis Liu C, Mo LH, Feng BS 2021-06-26 PMC
Multi-omic profiling of plasma reveals molecular alterations in children with COVID-19 Wang C, Li X, Ning W 2021-07-06 PMC
Clinical Acupoint Selection for the Treatment of Functional Constipation by Massage and Acupuncture Based on Smart Medic... Sun F, Liu Z, Zhang W 2021-07-16 PMC
Effectiveness and Safety of Chinese Medicine Decoctions for Behcet's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Yan J, Yan Y, Young A 2021-07-17 PMC
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Amelioration of 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis by Streptococcus thermophilus ST4 in a mouse model Shen SR, Chen WJ, Chu HF 2021-07-26 PMC
Drug repurposing strategies of relevance for Parkinson’s disease Fletcher EJ, Kaminski T, Williams G 2021-07-26 PMC
Effect evaluation of acupuncture combined with nerve block treatment on patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis Wang Y, Dai S, Yang A 2021-06-15 PMC
Causal inference for heritable phenotypic risk factors using heterogeneous genetic instruments Wang J, Zhao Q, Bowden J 2021-06-22 PMC
Refractory Spontaneous Bacterial Empyema in Cirrhotic Patient Chow E, Khiatah B, Frugoli A 2021-07-14 PMC
Protective Effects of Anwulignan against HCl/Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Ulcer in Mice Liu J, Lin H, Yuan L 2021-07-14 PMC
Shooting yourself in the foot: How immune cells induce antibiotic tolerance in microbial pathogens Beam JE, Rowe SE, Conlon BP 2021-07-22 PMC
Candida albicans colonization of the gastrointestinal tract: A double-edged sword Alonso-Monge R, Gresnigt MS, Román E 2021-07-22 PMC
1-Nitropyrene Induced Reactive Oxygen Species–Mediated Apoptosis in Macrophages through AIF Nuclear Translocation and AM... Su CH, Ho YC, Lee MW 2021-07-13 PMC
Effects of the Cistanche tubulosa Aqueous Extract on the Gut Microbiota of Mice with Intestinal Disorders Bao X, Bai D, Liu X 2021-07-14 PMC
Clinical Outcomes of Ileostomy Closure before Adjuvant Chemotherapy after Rectal Cancer Surgery: An Observational Study ... Sun Z, Zhao Y, Liu L 2021-07-13 PMC
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National and Subnational Cancer Incidence for 22 Cancer Groups, 2000 to 2016: A Study Based on Cancer Registration Data ... Khanali J, Kolahi AA 2021-07-12 PMC
First Schistosomal Cholecystitis Complicated by Cholangitis and Liver Abscess: Case Report and Review of Literature Toffaha A, Al Hyassat S, Elmoghazy W 2021-07-12 PMC
LncRNA AFAP1-AS1 Promotes the Progression of Colorectal Cancer through miR-195-5p and WISP1 Li Y, Zhu Z, Hou X 2021-07-13 PMC
Antitumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-α) Infliximab-Induced Pleural Effusion and Pericarditis in Crohn's Disease Fonseca A, Sunny J, Felipez LM 2021-07-12 PMC
Review of Traditional Chinese Medicines for Common Complications Related to Hemodialysis: An Evidence-Based Perspective Liu YW, Hsu YT, Lee WC 2021-07-13 PMC
The association of severe anemia, red blood cell transfusion and necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates Song J, Dong H, Xu F 2021-07-20 PMC
Application of propofol combined with sevoflurane anesthesia in staged hepatectomy liver detachment and portal vein liga... Xu F, Jiang H, Jin M 2021-06-30 PMC
Evaluation of animal models of Crohn's disease with anal fistula (Review) Lu S, Zhu K, Guo Y 2021-07-08 PMC
Characteristics of mouse intestinal microbiota during acute liver injury and repair following 50% partial hepatectomy Shao Y, Jiang Y, Li H 2021-07-05 PMC
Fusobacterium nucleatum Pleural Empyema in a Patient with Progressive Rheumatoid Arthritis and Immunosuppression Tang W, Liu ZY, Abreu C 2021-07-10 PMC
Intraoperative Endoscopy in Transient Adult Jejunojejunal Intussusception Okamoto T, Suzuki H, Fukuda K 2021-07-12 PMC
Evaluation of economic burden with biologic treatments in Crohn’s disease patients: A mirror image study using an insura... Miyazaki C, Katsumasa N, Huang KC 2021-07-19 PMC
Coeliac artery and splenic artery thrombosis complicated with splenic infarction 7 days following the first dose of Oxfo... Bandapaati S, Bobba H, Navinan MR 2021-07-14 PMC
Association of ultra-processed food intake with risk of inflammatory bowel disease: prospective cohort study Narula N, Wong EC, Dehghan M 2021-07-15 PMC
Brugada pattern in an afebrile patient with acute COVID-19 Adedeji OM, Falk Z, Tracy CM 2021-07-13 PMC
Image computing for fibre-bundle endomicroscopy: A review Perperidis A, Dhaliwal K, McLaughlin S 2019-12-25 PMC
SKI Expression Suppresses Pathogenic Th17 Cell Response and Mitigates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Li P, Guo Z, Wan YY 2021-07-15 PMC
Re-Programming Autoreactive T Cells Into T-Regulatory Type 1 Cells for the Treatment of Autoimmunity Solé P, Santamaria P 2021-07-15 PMC
Genetic Imaging of Neuroinflammation in Parkinson’s Disease: Recent Advancements Yao L, Wu J, Koc S 2021-07-15 PMC
Atractylenolide I Inhibits NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in Colitis-Associated Colorectal Cancer via Suppressing Drp1-Me... Qin Y, Yu Y, Yang C 2021-07-15 PMC
Atractylodin Attenuates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis by Alleviating Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis and Inhibiting In... Qu L, Lin X, Liu C 2021-07-15 PMC
Inhibitory Molecules PD-1, CD73 and CD39 Are Expressed by CD8+ T Cells in a Tissue-Dependent Manner and Can Inhibit T Ce... Smith CJ, Snyder CM 2021-07-15 PMC
Gout Augments the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Patients With Psoriasis: A Population-Based Cohort Study Chen Z, Xu Y, Chen M 2021-07-15 PMC
COVID-19-Patientinnen und -Patienten in Deutschland: Expositionsrisiken und assoziierte Faktoren für Hospitalisierungen ... Koppe U, Wilking H, Harder T 2021-07-29 PMC
A systematic review on the effects of Echinacea supplementation on cytokine levels: Is there a role in COVID-19? Aucoin M, Cardozo V, McLaren MD 2021-07-29 PMC
Cyclopentenone Prostaglandins: Biologically Active Lipid Mediators Targeting Inflammation Lee BR, Paing MH, Sharma-Walia N 2021-07-15 PMC

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Partners

Eurordis

Eurordis is a leading alliance of a big spectrum of rare disease organizations located in Europe.

www.eurordis.org

Rarefundingteam

Rarefundingteam provides support for rare disease organizations to improve their marketing activities and their funding opportunities

www.rarefundingteam.com

Findacure

Findacure is an organization with the goal to provide mentorship, training and advice to rare disease patient support groups to enable those groups to work efficiently towards our common goal: to make rare disease patients being heard and make diagnostic and treatment available to them.

www.findacure.org.uk

Other organizations

If other organizations want to enable a partnership with us, please let us know ...

About Us

We are a nonprofit patient group with a lot of members who are struggling with IMBS themselves.

Wherever possible, we try to drive research on IMBS in general and we also try to support individual patients as much as possible.

Domain owner and responsible for the content: Danny Kunz

Address: Danny Kunz Heilbronnerstr. 16/2 71634 Ludwigsburg Germany

Email: contact@imbs-alliance.org (Legal concerns around the domain and content) support@imbs-alliance.org (Patient support)

Phone: +49 151 565 273 00 (Please use this phone contact only for legal concerns around the domain and content, we are not able to provide phone support for patients at this moment)

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As alternative the privacy policy is available in simple text format here .

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