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Intestinal Metabolic Bromhidrosis Syndrome Alliance

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As odorous intestinal metabolites cross the intestinal wall barrier and liver they are excreted in sweat and breath. The resulting symptoms are called Bromhidrosis and Halitosis.

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Our patient guide is available as PDF document.

It includes a quick overview over IMBS and community and contact information.

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Our doctor's guide is available as PDF document.

It includes a quick overview over IMBS diagnostic and community and contact information.

As patient this allows you to hand over a first disease description to your general practitioner.

As a doctor this gives you a first introduction into the syndrome and its diagnostic space.

Download

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Patient Information

Definition

Intestinal Metabolic Bromhidrosis Syndrome (IMBS) defines a type of bromhidrosis that is caused by odorous intestinal metabolites, which pass the intestinal and liver metabolism and are excreted through the skin.

IMBS represents a group of subtly different syndromes caused by different underlying diseases, which share the fact that their patients suffer from chronic body odor. This strongly impacts their quality of life, not limited to but especially in the work environment.

Classical Medical/Dermatological View

The current support by classical medical institutions is extremely limited: Official research in the field of bromhidrosis was neglectable in the past decades and general intestinal research has not yet connected their research to the dermatological fields.

The classical dermatological research on bromhidrosis [1] mostly focuses on either topical treatments which have only a small ameliorating effect or on the removal of axillary skin glands by surgery. In cases of Trimethylaminuria (TMAU), patients currently mostly only receive dietary advice or are, in some cases, prescribed non-resorbable antibiotics [2] .

Recent Intestinal Medical Research

Newer research hypotheses focus more on the intestinal tract as the source of bromhidrosis and halitosis symptomes [3] . It is already clear that trimethylamine, which is the odorous compound responsible for TMAU type 1, is only one small player of various odorous metabolites available in the intestinal tract metabolism. There are well known further players such as carboxylates (e.g. butyrate, isovalerate), amines, sulfuric compounds, ammonia, methyl mercaptan and indole to name some of them. As the different metabolites move through their metabolic cycle, they pass, in different amounts, the intestinal wall through the intestinal epithelial layers and thus end up in the blood stream, towards the liver. In cases in which the liver metabolism is not able to handle the volume of intestinal metabolites, the metabolites pass on to be excreted by the lung gas exchange and by the outer skin sweat glands.

Bromhidrosis diseases and metabolites and gene overview

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RareConnect

As we do not maintain an own forum, we refer to the multilingual RareConnect forum, where posts are translated to multiple languages.

RareConnect is provided by EURORDIS .

The RareConnect forum is grouped by rare disease communities. At the current point in time there are two groups available:

Forum

Treatments
Symptom Treatment Effectiveness Approved by medical studies
Fish body odor Diet / Reduction of TMA containing fish and choline, betaine and carnitine containing foods 75% Yes
Fish body odor (TMAU type 2) Prescription of non resorbable antibiotics for short periods 75% Yes
Fish body odor Riboflavin supplementation 50% Yes
Fish and fecal body odor (TMAU type 2) Folate or MTHF supplementation unknown No
Fish and fecal body odor (TMAU type 2) Vitamine B12 supplementation unknown No
Fish and fecal body odor (TMAU type 2) Vitamine B6 supplementation unknown No
Fish and fecal body odor (TMAU type 2) SAMe supplementation unknown No
Fish and fecal body odor (TMAU type 2) Dietary avoidance of cysteine unknown No
Fecal body odor Glycine, Serine supplementation unknown No
Fecal body odor Choline and Folate supplementation unknown No
Fecal body odor Avoidance of benzoates, cinnamate and salicylates unknown No
Fecal body odor Avoidance of benzimidazoles like e.g. proton pump inhibitors unknown No
Fecal body odor Avoidance of stress unknown No
Fecal body odor Champex/Deodorex 10% No
Fecal body odor Dietary avoidance of D-Ribose unknown No
Fecal body odor Dietary avoidance of phosphoric acid + glucose / fructose (like e.g. Coca Cola) unknown No
Rotten eggs body odor none
Urine like body odor Protein reduction diet + prescription of non resorbable antibiotics for short periods unknown No
Urine like body odor Sodium Benzoate supplementation (consultation of a medical professional is a must) unknown No
Axillary body odor Strong antitranspirants 10% Yes
Sweat like body odor Full body application of antitranspirant + deodorant combination 10% No
Sweat/Vomit/sweaty feet like body odor Taurine, Magnesium and potassium supplements 50% No
Sweat/Vomit/sweaty feet like body odor Daily intestinal cleanings e.g. with Macrogol (can be dangerous - consultation of a medical professional upfront is a must) 30% No
Sweat/Vomit/sweaty feet like body odor Tyrosine supplements 10% No
Vomit/sweaty feet with additional urine like body odor Sodium Benzoate supplementation (consultation of a medical professional is a must) unknown No
Vomit like body odor Mangan supplements 10% No
Cabbage like body odor/halitosis Diet unknown No
IBS-C (constipation) Topinambur powder (long chain carbohydrate degrading into fructose) [Warning: Body odor elevation] 15% No
IBS-C (constipation) Magnesium oxide + citrate 15% No

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Research News

Metabolic markers:

  • Glycine

  • Citrulline

  • Choline

  • Betaine

  • Trimethylamine (TMA)

Genes:

  • BHMT

  • BHMT2

  • DMGDH

  • FMO3

  • CPS1

Link

A research paper investigates more deeply into the altered microbiotic compositions that occur in Trimethylaminuria type 2 patients.

Their investigation revealed first possible interference links from altered microbial metabolites to neurological pathways in the humand metabolism.

Some hypothesized alterations in metabolites are:

  • SCFAs (Lactate, Acetate, Butyrate, Propionate, ...)

  • ...

Hypothesized interference with human metabolites and enzymes:

  • Glutamate

  • GABA

  • Serotonine

  • Tryptophan

  • Quinolate

  • Norepinephrine

  • Dopamine

  • Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT)

  • Phosphatidylethanolamine

  • Phosphatidylcholine

  • Choline

  • Betaine transport

Link

A research study from May 2019 found that in urine samples of patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) various compounds were elevated:

  • Dimethylglycine

  • Glutamine

  • Lysine and Lysine compounds

  • Tryptophan compound

  • Ornithine

  • Imidazolepropionate

  • Dimethylguanosine

  • Serine

Especially the elevated Dimethylglycine compounds are also known from Dimethylglycinuria, which can also cause fish odor symptoms.

This is a potential first link between fish odor syndrome (TMAU2) and IBS.

Link

A small study around Jun Nishihira tried to investigate in the effects of champignon extract (Champex) on body odor and halitosis.

The study design is based on a patient questionaire, which gives a weak indication that Champex can improve regular body odor of elderly patients.

It is unclear at the moment if those results will apply to IMBS patients.

Link

In March 2020 a new research paper was published regarding a new treatment solution for Trimethylaminuria using engineered polymersomes...

Link

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Diagnostic

Official diagnostic tests:

  • Urine and genetic test for trimethylaminuria [1]

  • Urine and genetic test for dimethylglycinuria [2]

  • Genetic testing for SELENBP1 (Halitosis) [3]

  • Blood testing for Dimethylsulphidemia (Halitosis) [4]

  • Blood testing for Hyperammonemia in the context of weak urea cycle disorders [5]

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There are two guideline documents available for download.

The first guide is addressing patients: Patient's guide

The second guide is addressing medical practitioners: Doctor's guide

Those guides are free to copy and multiply.

If you as a patient want to visit e.g. your general practitioner with the topic of IMBS symptoms the first time, please print out the doctor's guide on paper and provide it to your general practitioner to support him/her in gathering relevant information.

Not verified and explorative tests:

Notes:

  • Organic aciduria urine tests are regularly without any result (In those diseases all organs and cell are affected and the kidneys and liver are not able to mask any metabolite)

  • In IMBS patients deficiencies of enzymes seem to be very limited to intestinal and liver metabolism, which results in masking of metabolites by liver and kidneys. Again its worth to mention the short half time below 10 minutes of butyrates in blood and also ( [2] ) once more, as the paper shows a reduction of factor 4 of e.g. butyrate levels compared from portal vein blood to blood within the circulation after the liver

  • In IMBS cases in general blood tests have the ability to reveal more direct metabolites compared to urine tests

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Rare disease centers

We encourage all patients to contact rare disease centers in their respective country. Please prepare yourself as most medical practitioners have no special or even no knowledge at all around anaerobic metabolites and that they occur in the human metabolism. Normally specialists that know about those metabolites can be found in the field of classical organic acidurias, but they normally lack special knowledge of intestinal diseases. Nevertheless they might be a first contact point which can route patients to specialist in intestinal research diagnostic. In order to help them find the correct contact persons, you can also refer them to the IMBS homepage, where they can get a detailed overview about the disease. Also make them aware that classical organic acid screenings via urine sample tests are already known to not be applicable to IMBS patients.

Official genetic testing (Germany)

In Germany it is required by law, if a genetic test should be applied, that patients receive genetic counseling before the test. Genetic counseling is normally also handled by rare disease centers, so those are a first contact point.

There are also laboratories available which allow to pay privately and also offer genetic counseling:

Note: German health insurance providers pay now for necessary genetic tests for a small number of target genes (<=20). This opens a new way also for IMBS patients with not enough private money for WES or WGS screenings to ask for genetic testing for their condition.

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Genova Diagnostics

Genova Diagnostics is a private service provider that offers mainly metabolomic but also genomic tests. They offer their services in US and UK at the moment. In normal cases they work together with specialized general practitioners as contact to private end users.

Homepage

Medivere Diagnostics

Medivere Diagnostics offers small standard blood, urine and stool tests to end users in their online shop. Their service is available in Germany.

Homepage

Cerascreen

Cerascreen provides an online shop which offers e.g. standard amino acid blood spot tests but also a wide variety of standard tests. Their online shop is available in Germany.

Homepage

IFU Wolfhagen

IFU Wolfhagen offers e.g. urine analytic panels in their online shop. Their services is available in Germandy.

Homepage

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Amino Acids

The different smell types the IMBS patients suffer from are associated to different odorous compounds. Those odorous compounds are very often also part of the close degradation or synthesis of amino acids.

Following you find the relations between odorous compounds and amino acids:

Fish odor / Trimethylamine

  • Choline

  • Betaine

  • Lecithin

  • Carnitine

Fecal body odor / Indole, Skatole

  • Tryptophan

  • Glycine

  • Serine

  • Phenylalanine

  • Tyrosine

  • Histidine

Foul eggs body odor / Sulfur compounds

  • Cysteine

  • Methionine

  • Taurine

Urine body odor / Ammonia

  • Ornithine

  • Aspartate

  • Citrulline

  • Arginine

  • Glycine

  • Serine

  • Glutamine

  • Glutamate

Vomit body odor / butyrate

  • Lysine

  • Valine

(Also amino acids from urine body odor can apply)

Sweaty feet / isovalerate

  • Leucine

  • Isoleucine

(Also amino acids from urine body odor can apply)

Rotten meat like / Putrescine, Cadaverine

  • Ornithine (Putrescine)

  • Lysine (Cadaverine)

Garbage like / Hydrogen sulfide, Dimethyl sulfide, Methanethiol, Putrescine, Cadaverine, Trimethylamine, Ammonia, Acetaldehyde, Acetate

This is a mixture of previous groups. [1]

Dietary approach

We strongly recommend to not use full elimination diets in any form for a longer period of time.

Cravings are normally a sign of the body for the need of certain nutrients. Do not ignore them in the context of a reduction diet in a context of a certain amino acid.

Also be aware that the listed amino acids are only grouped by colocation within biochemical pathway boundaries. Some diseased will perhaps only affect one amino acid within a group or also only some from a combinations of groups.

As an real life example a blood spot amino acid screening revealed following amino acids to be out of normal ranges:

  • Tryptophan: ++

  • Glycine: ++

  • Serine: ++

  • Lysine: -

  • Ornithine: ++

  • Aspartate: ++

  • Histidine: +

Symbols:

  • '++' = high above normal range

  • '+' = very high but within normal range

  • '-' = very low but within normal range

  • '--' = below normal range

As you can see such a amino acid screening might give some hints what to supplement and what to reduce within the diet.

Be still aware of the fact, that is unclear at the moment how to correctly react on certain amino acid levels to be above or below normal ranges.

There are certain hints present that some type of odorous metabolites do actually stabilize the harmed intestinal metabolism to a certain degree, others dont.

So a wrong dietary elimination choice might also increase the damage to intestinal cells over time, even if the body odor or halitosis was reduced for a period of time.

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From our personal observation in patient research, hyperhidrosis (extensive sweating) can be a correlating symptom to bromhidrosis, but it does not have to be present. We perceive only a small fraction of the patients to have actually both bromhidrosis and hyperhidrosis symptoms.

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Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) [1] is defined as a chronic functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. It is characterized by abdominal pain and/or changes in bowel movements.

Our observation shows that about 20-30% of IMBS patients also suffer from IBS or begin to suffer after some years of chronic body odor symptoms.

Also our observation shows that a fecal body odor seems to be more likely associated with IBS-D and a sweat/vomit/sweaty feet body odor is more likely associated with IBS-C.

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Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)

Introduction

Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is an approach to allows to sequence parts or the whole DNA/RNA strand structure of the human genomes. The NGS approach has emerged more and more in the past decade to be used as method within research studies to isolate causal relationships to diseases and their symptoms.

See also Wikibook about NGS and the underlying techniques

Criteria for NGS services

Depending on the country laws there are not only official medical institutions available that offer NGS services to patients but also private service providers.

If NGS services should utilized to get more information about a potential underlying disease, it is important to know about some important attributes of the different provided services.

  • Type of sequencing: whole genome (WGS) [1] or whole exome (WES) [2]

  • Coverage [3] : represents the number of times the sequencing covered the same target reference area

  • Sequencing result provided in file formats: VCF (with/without annotations), FASTQ, BAM

Cost perspective:

  • WGS 20x : ~ 600€

  • WES 20x : ~ 400€

(prices do heavily change over time and between different service providers)

Requirements for medical representative evaluations:

  • At the moment a minimum of a 20x coverage of the target area is accepted to allow a medical relevant interpretation

  • WGS includes the intron areas but is not yet easily interpretable as the intron areas are prone to high variations, but that improves steadily over time (so the data from today might be utilizable in the future just by reinterpretation of the data by newer software applications and new entries in the variant databases)

Regarding ancestry services like 23andMe:

The ancestry services like 23andMe are very limited in the sense of which parts of the exome area is targeted/covered and how often the target area is read (read coverage). The process of 23andme rely on genotyping approaches and not on WES or WGS. [4]

We do not recommend ancestry services for medical relevant investigations, instead we recommend at least a WES 20x offer by a service provider who provides at least annotated VCF files or even better additionally the original FASTQ files which contains the raw sequencing information.

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Medically known genes

A limited set of gene defects is already known to be related to chronic body odor and/or halitosis.

  • FMO3 (Trimethylaminuria) [1]

  • DMGDH (Dimethylglycine dehydrogenase deficiency) [2]

  • SELENBP1 (Methanethiol oxidase deficiency / EHMTO) [3]

Explorative gene candidates

For other body odor or halitosis types there are no official gene defects known so far. But there are gene candidates available that might be involved because they encode enzymes, transporters, receptors around biochemical pathways related to certain odorous metabolites.

Sweat or vomit, sweaty feet like body odor / Carboxylates, Butyrate, Isovalerate...

Direct enzyme defects:

  • ACSM2B

  • ACSM5

  • ACSM2A

Indirectly involved defects:

  • CPS1 (also as benign qualified variants with known elevated glycine levels)

Also potentially indirectly involved genes:

  • MYLK

  • ATP10B

  • AGXT2

  • SLC28A1

  • SLC23A1

  • SLC17A4

  • SLC10A2

Fecal body odor / Indole,Skatole

  • BHMT2

  • CYP2E1

  • CYP2B

  • CYP2A6

Fecal and sweat like body odor / IBS-C and IBS-D related genes

  • GUCY2C

  • TRPV3

  • SCN5A

  • AQP8

  • IDO1

  • PGP

  • GAD2

  • FAAH

  • NPSR1

  • FUT2

Semiautomated gene reports

We provide semiautomated reports based on gene analysis results from an IMBS patient cohort.

  • Genes with intestinal and liver expression that where matched by at least two patients: Report

  • Genes of IMBS patient cohort matched against genes of IBS research publications: Report

Additional note

It is not necessary that always a genetic defect is present in chronic body odor cases. There are also reports from patients that the symptoms started after food poisoning or antibiotic treatment.

So be aware that a metabolome analysis in those cases would reveal more information.

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In metabolome studies following metabolic markers have been observed to be potentially out of normal ranges in IMBS patients:

  • Benzoate / Benzoic acid

  • Hippurate / Hippuric acid

  • Tartarate / Tartaric acid

  • Orotate / Orotic acid

  • Cis-aconitate / Cis-aconitic acid

  • Succinate / Succinic acid

  • Isocitrate

  • Fumarate

  • Hydroxymethylglutarate

  • Histidine

  • Taurine

  • Threonine

  • Tryptophan

  • Glycine

  • Serine

  • Phosphoserine

  • Vanilmandelate

  • Homovanillate

  • Ornithine

  • Citrulline

  • Pyroglutamate

  • Para-hydroxyphenylacetate

  • Anserine

  • Carnosine

  • 1-Methylhistidine

  • beta-alanine

  • Linoleate / linoleic acid

  • Potassium

  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

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For the IMBS patient subgroup, which shows a fecal like body odor, the metabolites indole and secondary skatole are in the focus as those metabolites are creating a strong fecal like scent.

We expect at least three different types of causative reasons in those subgroups:

  • Enzyme deficiencies in directly indole degrading enzymes like e.g. CYP2E1, CYP2B, ...

  • Enzyme deficiencies in the choline -> glycine degradation pathway (BHMT2, Methyltetrahydrofolate cluster)

  • Enzyme deficiencies in the lower glycine + benzoate -> hippurate degradation pathway

Shikimate pathway forming Tryptophan over Indole

The shikimate pathway [1] is a microbial pathway which is responsible for the biosynthesis of tryptophan combining indole and glyine/serine [2] .

As its precursors glycine and serine and the product tryptophan are involved, the human degradation pathways of those amino acids might be of high relevancy for the elevated formation of indole.

Choline -> Glycine degradation pathway

A subgroup of fecal body odor patients do show also positive Trimethylaminuria urine tests. Which indicates a formation of elevated Trimethylamine (TMA) levels in the intestinal area. One reason could be a impaired choline uptake and degradation which results in an elevated degradation of choline to TMA in the intestinal lumen. As the degradation pathway of choline also affects the availability of glycine and serine, it is a promising candidate branch to be also responsible for an elevated indole concentration.

For this subgroup folate supplementation might be helpful, as folate supports the choline, betaine -> glycine, serine degradation.

Glycine + Benzoate -> Hippurate degradation pathway

In metabolome analysis results for fecal body odor patients we observed elevated benzoate with at the same time below normal ranges hippurate levels. Glycine levels were normally low but in normal range.

This is related to the glycine detoxification mechanism [3] , which could be impaired in this subgroup of IMBS patients by too low availability of glycine or serine.

If the indication of a too low availability of glycine and serine is correct, the low levels would impair the bile acid salt conjugation with glycine and lower the availability of glycine in the intestinal lumen.

The ration glycine/taurine would shift and the tryptophan formation over indole + glycine might be impaired with the result of elevated indole concentrations in the intestinal lumen.

CYP enzyme family

Some CYP family enzymes are known to degradate indole to less odorous metabolites.

Examples are:

  • CYP2E1, CYP2B [4]

Those are prominent candidates for enzyme deficiencies that might lead to an impaired indole degradation.

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For the IMBS patient subgroup, which shows a vomit like, sweat like or sweaty feet like body odor, the main scent driving metabolites are from the carboxylates group:

  • Butyrate (Vomit like)

  • Isovalerate (Sweaty feet like, cheesy)

  • Hexanoate

We expect at least two different types of causative reasons:

  • Enzyme deficiencies in directly butyrate or isovalerate degrading enzymes like e.g. ACSM2B , ...

  • Mitochondrial impairment of intestinal barrier cells, e.g. by local hyperammonia in those cells (not systemic)

ACSM2B and deficiencies in the degradation pathway (IMBS Carboxylate Type 1)

In contrast to other odorous metabolites, the carboxylates group is a major energy source for the intestinal barrier cells and the liver.

The also known term 'short chain fatty acids' (SCFAs) refers mostly to a subset of carboxylates but also including e.g. methylated forms of them.

Following genes and enzymes are prominent candidates for enzyme deficiencies:

  • ACSM2B / EC 6.2.1.2 butyrate CoA ligase

  • A possible unknown gene encoding an isovalerate CoA ligase

Important is the aspect that e.g. the ACSM2B is also involved in salicylates, benzoate and phenylacetate in a lesser extend.

Also important:

  • Magnesium

  • Mangan

are cofactors of those enzymes. Supplementation of those could improve enzyme efficiency.

Mitochondrial impairment of the intestinal barrier cells by ammonia (IMBS Carboxylate Type 2 / IMBS CPS1)

Another possible causative situation can occur, if the mitochondrial activity of the intestinal barrier cells is impaired. One reason can be elevated cell local concentrations of ammonia, which would impair the degradation of the short chain acids (carboxylates) taken up from the colon. A typical sign in the later progress in this case can be IBS-C (constipation) symptoms which are caused from nerve function impairment e.g. in the sigma of the colon. Those symptoms can be present immediately or set in after years of the first bromhidrosis symptoms.

Metabolome biomarkers

Possible observations in that case are:

  • Slightly elevated ornithine, glycine, serine levels in blood

  • Also possibly slightly elevated Tryptophan, Histidine, Threonine levels in blood

  • Mainly elevated citrulline levels in urine

  • Low potassium (ammonia impairs potassium uptake indirectly by binding to the potassium receptors)

  • Low benzoate/benzoic acid levels in urine

During sodium benzoate treatment:

  • Very high hippurate/hippuric acid levels in urine

Genetic markers

  • Weak deficiencies in the CPS1 gene encoding the Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (Urea cycle disorder)

  • Example variant: rs1047883 [1]

Deficiencies in the CPS1 also including those marked as benign for hyperammonemia in the peripheral blood. Especially those which are linked also to elevated glycine levels in blood.

The qualification as benign is not related to benign in the context of IMBS as in IMBS cases the local hyperammonia in intestinal barrier cells can not necessarily be quantified by blood tests at the moment.

Treatment

  • Standard hyperammonia treatment with sodium benzoate orally (<5g distributed over the day) can show here very good effects reducing the nerve pain sensation for the IBS-C symptoms as well

  • Reducing the dietary amount of glycine and serine (or protein in general)

  • Reducing the dietary amount of glutamine, glutamate, aspartate, lysine and ornithine

  • Reducing the uptake of calcium

  • Increase of the magnesium (oxide or carbonate, not only citrate!) uptake

  • Increase of potassium uptake

  • Supplementation of Topinambur as inulin supplement, which is degraded as long chain carbohydrate to fructose mostly in the large intestinal tract (Increases the smell, but ameliorates the ammonia impairment of the mitchondria - should be taken first time after 1 week of sodium benzoate treatment)

Additional observations

  • Also an observation is that the impaired colon motility leads to fat accumulation in the colon, which could be an additional aspect related to the increased SCFAs concentrations.

  • Magnesium carbonate and oxide (also all other carbonates) should be taken in small amounts (1 capsule per day) and with care, as they easily elevate the intestinal pH up to pH 10, which can injure the intestinal wall.

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Cancer Research

Connection between subtypes of IMBS and butyrate

The field of cancer research seems to be far away from IMBS research on the first glance.

Interestingly it turns out to be the complete opposite if we take a look on biochemical side of some patient subgroups of IMBS and their affected metabolic compounds.

There are patients that report to have a very strong 'vomit' like body odor. The related metabolite known to have such an odor signature is butyrate in water solution.

What is butyrate?

Butyrate is the salt form of butyric acid which is widely known to be the major contributor to the smell of vomit.

As salt it can come in various combinations with different cations like:

  • Sodium (Na+)

  • Magnesium (Mg2+)

  • Potassium (K+)

  • Calcium (Ca2+)

E.g. sodium butyrate is also commonly available over the counter in supplement form.

Butyrate suppresses cancer growth in vitro but is not stable enough in blood stream

In the cancer research field Butryrates have been observed to have a strong growth suppressing effect of cancer cells in vitro. [1]

Unfortunately explorative studies, which tried to utilize a butyrate solution as blood infusion, failed to stabilize the butyrates in the blood circulation. Butyrates turned out to have very short stability half times of under 10 minutes before they get consumed and degraded by the human cells. [2]

Butyrate relevance in IBD

Newer research on the side of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBS) showed now some diagnostic advances which revealed e.g. 'naturally' elevated isobutyrate levels in a small sample group of IBD patients. [3]

In other words, carboxylates like butyrate or isobutyrate can be elevated in the intestinal -> liver axis and are obviously not causing any harm as IBD patients are normally regarded as healthy beside their intestinal inflammation issues.

Resulting hypotheses

This new direction results in two hypotheses:

  • butyrates or carboxylates (like e.g. also isovalerate) in general might also be elevated in IMBS patient groups as their odors do match exactly the signature of those compounds

  • for cancer treatment support it might be possible to reproduce similar blood levels of butyrates easily by oral over supplementation (with likely resulting bromhidrosis symptomes) and this might result in a suppressed cancer growth, if the cancer is located on the intestinal -> liver blood axis.

Additional personal observation

  • As part of a investigation and visualization of a colorectal tumour sample from a tumour located in the descending colon, we applied a double mRNA expression analysis on the tumour sample and a healthy gut wall sample close to the tumour location

  • Comparison of enzyme expression levels showed that not only the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was over expressed, but also e.g. the butyryl-CoA synthetase (EC 6.2.1.2) was overexpressed. This might give a first hint that the anaerobic inner cancer metabolism does also supports its ATP supply by the reverse reaction that results in a butyrate synthesis like in a typical bacterial metabolism.

  • A theoretical result would be the hypothesis that increased butyrate levels would suppress the ATP supply of the inner cancer core cells and therefore would reduce cancer growth. This hypothetical consequence is already verified by experimental investigations prior to it. (See references in the above text)

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Library
Title Authors Date Link
Trimethylaminuria and Vascular Complications Oliveira-Filho AF, Medeiros PF, Velloso ... 2021-05-03 PMC
A Case of Fishy Smell-Fish Malodor Syndrome Wang AW, Greenberg PD, Saul SR 2021-05-03 PMC
Trimethylamine modulates dauer formation, neurodegeneration, and lifespan through tyra‐3/daf‐11 signaling in Caenorhabdi... Khanna A, Sellegounder D, Kumar J 2021-04-05 PMC
Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Levels Are Similar in Asymptomatic vs. Symptomatic Cerebrovascular Atherosclerosis Heyse M, Schneider C, Monostori P 2021-03-19 PMC
Cancer interception by interceptor molecules: mechanistic, preclinical and human translational studies with chlorophylls Dashwood RH 2021-03-06 PMC
Flavin-Containing Monooxygenases Are Conserved Regulators of Stress Resistance and Metabolism Huang S, Howington MB, Dobry CJ 2021-02-12 PMC
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) in human health Gatarek P, Kaluzna-Czaplinska J 2021-02-11 PMC
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Structural basis of carnitine monooxygenase CntA substrate specificity, inhibition, and intersubunit electron transfer Quareshy M, Shanmugam M, Townsend E 2020-11-23 PMC
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Drug Discovery and Development of Novel Therapeutics for Inhibiting TMAO in Models of Atherosclerosis and Diabetes Steinke I, Ghanei N, Govindarajulu M 2020-10-29 PMC
An Expanded Genetic Code Enables Trimethylamine Metabolism in Human Gut Bacteria Kivenson V, Giovannoni SJ 2020-10-27 PMC
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Olfaction scaffolds the developing human from neonate to adolescent and beyond Schaal B, Saxton TK, Loos H 2020-04-20 PMC
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Plasma concentration of trimethylamine-N-oxide and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus Li P, Zhong C, Li S 2018-09-11 PMC
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Something to Sweat About: Two Cases of Dupilumab-Induced Hyperhidrosis and Bromhidrosis Rowane M, Valencia R, Schend J 2020-05-20 PMC
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Upper Gastrointestinal Disorders in Adult Patients with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Curtis JS, Kennedy SE, Attarha B 2021-06-02 PMC
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Selenium-Binding Protein 1 (SELENBP1) as Biomarker for Adverse Clinical Outcome After Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Seelig J, Heller RA, Haubruck P 2021-05-28 PMC
Knowledge and Attitudes of Future Healthcare Professionals Toward Rare Diseases Domaradzki J, Walkowiak D 2021-05-28 PMC
Acupuncture as an Independent or Adjuvant Management to Standard Care for Perimenopausal Depression: A Systematic Review... Zhao FY, Fu QQ, Kennedy GA 2021-05-28 PMC
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Magnet-assisted endoscopic diverticulotomy for an esophageal diverticulum after anterior cervical spine surgery: First c... Morita FH, Bergantini Neto H, Sakai P 2021-05-27 PMC
Multidimensional Urban Exposure Analysis of Industrial Chemical Risk Scenarios in Mexican Metropolitan Areas Ortega Montoya CY, López-Pérez AO, Ugald... 2021-05-26 PMC
Accuracy of breath test for diabetes mellitus diagnosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis Wang W, Zhou W, Wang S 2021-05-24 PMC
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Airflow limitation and tongue microbiota in community-dwelling elderly individuals Takeshita T, Matsumoto K, Furuta M 2021-05-24 PMC
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Somatization in patients with predominant diarrhoea irritable bowel syndrome: the role of the intestinal barrier functio... Prospero L, Riezzo G, Linsalata M 2021-05-22 PMC
The Alteration of Salivary Immunoglobulin A in Autism Spectrum Disorders Gong W, Qiao Y, Li B 2021-05-21 PMC
Comparative evaluation of bacterial colonization on removable dental prostheses in patients with COVID-19: A clinical st... Karimzadeh F, Sajedi SM, Taram S 2021-05-21 PMC
Bailing Capsule combined with α-ketoacid tablets for stage 3 chronic kidney disease: Protocol of a double-blinded, rando... Hu X, Wang J, Yang H 2021-05-21 PMC
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Citizen-science based study of the oral microbiome in Cystic fibrosis and matched controls reveals major differences in ... Willis JR, Saus E, Iraola-Guzmán S 2021-05-17 PMC
Photodynamic Therapy in Orthodontics: A Literature Review Olek M, Machorowska-Pieniążek A, Stós W 2021-05-14 PMC
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Is the Risk to Develop Osteoradionecrosis of the Jaws Following IMRT for Head and Neck Cancer Related to Co-Factors? Rosenfeld E, Eid B, Masri D 2021-05-11 PMC
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The Prevalence and Determinant Factors of Oral Halitosis in Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study Teshome A, Derese K, Andualem G 2021-05-11 PMC
Streptococcus salivarius inhibits immune activation by periodontal disease pathogens MacDonald KW, Chanyi RM, Macklaim JM 2021-05-07 PMC
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Association between sleep habits and symptoms of oral disease in adolescents: the 2017 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-bas... Choi ES, Jeon HS, Mun SJ 2021-05-04 PMC
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A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial to Assess the Acidogenic Potential of Dental Biofilms through a Tab... Kang MS, Lee DS, Kim M 2021-04-28 PMC
Highly Sensitive and Selective Sensing of H2S Gas Using Precipitation and Impregnation-Made CuO/SnO2 Thick Films Leangtanom P, Wisitsoraat A, Jaruwongran... 2021-04-28 PMC
Evaluation of antibacterial activity against Candida albicans according to the dosage of various denture cleansers Bae CH, Lim YK, Kook JK 2021-04-27 PMC
Structural Equation Modeling of Tongue Function and Tongue Hygiene in Acute Stroke Patients Hidaka R, Furuya J, Nishiyama A 2021-04-26 PMC
Alleviation of halitosis by use of probiotics and their protective mechanisms in the oral cavity Karbalaei M, Keikha M, Kobyliak NM 2021-04-23 PMC
Olfactory Detection of Toluene by Detection Rats for Potential Screening of Lung Cancer Oh Y, Kwon OS, Min SS 2021-04-23 PMC
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A gastro-colic fistula secondary to high-grade B-cell gastric lymphoma in a patient with AIDS: a case report Leong W, Xu M, Ni L 2021-04-22 PMC
A Study on Acute Membranous Tonsillitis, Its Different Etiologies and Its Clinical Presentation in a Tertiary Referral C... Sharma K, Das S, Goswami A 2021-04-22 PMC
The Herbal Formula CWBSD Improves Sleep Quality Dependent on Oral Microbial Type and Tongue Diagnostic Features in Insom... Kim MJ, Bose S, Shin NR 2021-04-21 PMC
European Guidelines for Obesity Management in Adults with a Very Low-Calorie Ketogenic Diet: A Systematic Review and Met... Muscogiuri G, El Ghoch M, Colao A 2021-04-21 PMC
Inter-society consensus for the use of inhaled corticosteroids in infants, children and adolescents with airway diseases Duse M, Santamaria F, Verga MC 2021-04-21 PMC
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The Influence of Body Image, Insight, and Mental Health Confidence on Medication Adherence in Young Adult Women with Men... Lee E, Jang MH 2021-04-07 PMC
A canine case of malignant melanoma carrying a KIT c.1725_1733del mutation treated with toceranib: a case report and in ... Tani H, Miyamoto R, Noguchi S 2021-04-07 PMC
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Facts and ideas from anywhere Roberts WC 2021-04-06 PMC
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Comparative Evaluation of the Effects of Adenotonsillar Hypertrophy on Oral Health in Children İnönü-Sakallı N, Sakallı C, Tosun Ö 2021-04-02 PMC
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光动力疗法治疗口腔疾病的研究进展 , , PMC
Recent Development of Active Ingredients in Mouthwashes and Toothpastes for Periodontal Diseases Rajendiran M, Trivedi HM, Chen D 2021-04-01 PMC
Prevalence of COVID-19 Vaccine Side Effects among Healthcare Workers in the Czech Republic Riad A, Pokorná A, Attia S 2021-04-01 PMC
Clinical, epidemiological, and diagnostic characteristics of esophageal carcinoma in a Pakistani population Asghar MS, Khan NA, Kazmi SJ 2021-04-01 PMC
Does the use of face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic impact on oral hygiene habits, oral conditions, reasons to seek ... Pinzan-Vercelino CR, Freitas KM, Girão V... 2021-04-01 PMC
Plant-based oral care product exhibits antibacterial effects on different stages of oral multispecies biofilm developmen... Kommerein N, Weigel AJ, Stiesch M 2021-04-01 PMC
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Painful palatal lesion in a patient with COVID-19 Pauli MA, Pereira LD, Monteiro ML 2021-03-28 PMC
Impact of COVID-19 on the oral health of adults in Wuhan and China: results of a nationwide online cross-sectional quest... Zhang S, Liu C, Zhang C 2021-03-26 PMC
Bottom-up analysis of emergent properties of N-acetylcysteine as an adjuvant therapy for COVID-19 Dominari A, Hathaway III D, Kapasi A 2021-03-25 PMC
Preliminary functional analysis of the subgingival microbiota of cats with periodontitis and feline chronic gingivostoma... Rodrigues MX, Fiani N, Bicalho RC 2021-03-25 PMC
A novel sustained‐release cysteamine bitartrate formulation for the treatment of cystinosis: Pharmacokinetics and safety... Berends CL, Pagan L, van Esdonk MJ 2021-03-25 PMC
Developing Lactic Acid Bacteria as an Oral Healthy Food Lai WK, Lu YC, Hsieh CR 2021-03-24 PMC
Experimental Evaluation of Aerosol Production after Dental Ultrasonic Instrumentation: An Analysis on Fine Particulate M... Graziani F, Izzetti R, Lardani L 2021-03-24 PMC
Oral probiotic activities and biosafety of Lactobacillus gasseri HHuMIN D Mann S, Park MS, Johnston TV 2021-03-23 PMC
Sesame Oil (Sesamum Indicum L.) as a New Challenge for Reinforcement of Conventional Glass Ionomer Cement, Could It Be? Aref NS 2021-03-22 PMC
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Idiopathic Gingival Enlargement Causing Social Stigma Kothari D 2021-03-20 PMC
Langerhans cell histiocytosis: A diagnostic enigma in the oral cavity Cherian LM, Sasikumar D, Sathyan P 2021-03-19 PMC
Dysbiosis of the Human Oral Microbiome During the Menstrual Cycle and Vulnerability to the External Exposures of Smoking... Bostanci N, Krog MC, Hugerth LW 2021-03-19 PMC
The Role of the Signaling Pathways Involved in the Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide on Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Zhao S, Li X, Lu P 2021-03-19 PMC
61st Annual Conference of Indian Society of Gastroenterology, Virtual Diamond Jubilee ISGCON 2020, 19-20th December 2020 2021-03-19 PMC
Title Authors Date Link
Effects of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) Leaf Extract on the Metabolomics of Serum and Feces in Weaned Piglets Challenged b... Wang D, Zhou L, Zhou H 2021-05-24 PMC
Transcriptomic and metabolomic characterization of post-hatch metabolic reprogramming during hepatic development in the ... Van Every HA, Schmidt CJ 2021-05-24 PMC
Increased EHHADH Expression Predicting Poor Survival of Osteosarcoma by Integrating Weighted Gene Coexpression Network A... Cui J, Yi G, Li J 2021-05-03 PMC
Comprehensive analysis of immune-related prognostic genes in the tumour microenvironment of hepatocellular carcinoma Gao W, Li L, Han X 2021-03-31 PMC
Dissection of two routes to naïve pluripotency using different kinase inhibitors Martinez-Val A, Lynch CJ, Calvo I 2021-03-25 PMC
Construction of circRNA-Based ceRNA Network to Reveal the Role of circRNAs in the Progression and Prognosis of Hepatocel... Deng R, Cui X, Dong Y 2021-02-26 PMC
Gene expression profile of human follicle dermal papilla cells in response to Camellia japonica phytoplacenta extract Cho WK, Kim H, Paek SH 2021-02-14 PMC
Rare genetic variants affecting urine metabolite levels link population variation to inborn errors of metabolism Cheng Y, Schlosser P, Hertel J 2021-02-11 PMC
Simple sequence repeats drive genome plasticity and promote adaptive evolution in penaeid shrimp Yuan J, Zhang X, Wang M 2021-02-11 PMC
Integrating lipidomics and genomics: emerging tools to understand cardiovascular diseases Tabassum R, Ripatti S 2021-01-15 PMC
Gene networks and pathways for plasma lipid traits via multitissue multiomics systems analysis Blencowe M, Ahn IS, Saleem Z 2021-01-05 PMC
Presumed cancer‐associated retinopathy (CAR) mimicking Sudden Acquired Retinal Degeneration Syndrome (SARDS) in canines Grozdanic SD, Lazic T, Kecova H 2020-12-27 PMC
Mechanistic Modeling of Gene Regulation and Metabolism Identifies Potential Targets for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Sun R, Xu Y, Zhang H 2020-12-23 PMC
Identification of Novel MeCP2 Cancer-Associated Target Genes and Post-Translational Modifications Castro-Piedras I, Vartak D, Sharma M 2020-12-10 PMC
RNA sequencing: new technologies and applications in cancer research Hong M, Tao S, Zhang L 2020-12-04 PMC
Analysis of differentially expressed genes in oral epithelial cells infected with Fusobacterium nucleatum for revealing ... Zhang S, Li C, Zhang Z 2020-12-02 PMC
Modulation of the TGF-β signaling pathway by long noncoding RNA in hepatocellular carcinoma Han M, Liao Z, Liu F 2020-12-01 PMC
Abstracts from the 53rd European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG) Conference: Interactive e-Posters 2020-12-01 PMC
Investigation of the Impact from IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15 on the Growth and Signaling of Activated CD4+ T Cells Coppola C, Hopkins B, Huhn S 2020-10-22 PMC
Non-syndromic Cleft Palate: An Overview on Human Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors Martinelli M, Palmieri A, Carinci F 2020-10-20 PMC
Coronavirus: proteomics analysis of chicken kidney tissue infected with variant 2 (IS-1494)-like avian infectious bronch... Abdollahi H, Rezaei-Tavirani M, Ghalyanc... 2020-10-20 PMC
CRISPR screening of porcine sgRNA library identifies host factors associated with Japanese encephalitis virus replicatio... Zhao C, Liu H, Xiao T 2020-10-14 PMC
Network-Based Coexpression Analysis Identifies Functional and Prognostic Long Noncoding RNAs in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Li J, Zhou J, Kai S 2020-10-06 PMC
Selenium and at-risk pregnancy: challenges and controversies Duntas LH 2020-10-01 PMC
Functional and Clinical Characterization of Tumor-Infiltrating T Cell Subpopulations in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Li J, Zhou J, Kai S 2020-09-30 PMC
Assessment of mitochondrial function in metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease using obese mouse models Zhao QY, Ge LH, Zhang K 2020-09-18 PMC
Identification and validation of a ten-gene set variation score as a diagnostic and prognostic stratification tool in he... Zou C, Yuan C, Ye J 2020-09-15 PMC
Evolutionary history of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) demethylation enzyme DmdA in marine bacteria Hernández L, Vicens A, Eguiarte LE 2020-09-10 PMC
Connectivity mapping of glomerular proteins identifies dimethylaminoparthenolide as a new inhibitor of diabetic kidney d... Klein J, Caubet C, Camus M 2020-09-10 PMC
Current State of Evidence: Influence of Nutritional and Nutrigenetic Factors on Immunity in the COVID-19 Pandemic Framew... Galmés S, Serra F, Palou A 2020-09-08 PMC
A Prognostic Model Based on Six Metabolism-Related Genes in Colorectal Cancer Sun YL, Zhang Y, Guo YC 2020-08-31 PMC
Role of N,N-Dimethylglycine and Its Catabolism to Sarcosine in Chromohalobacter salexigens DSM 3043 Yang T, Shao YH, Guo LZ 2020-08-18 PMC
Proteomic analysis revealed common, unique and systemic signatures in gender-dependent hepatocarcinogenesis Li H, Rong Z, Wang H 2020-08-13 PMC
Identification of potential hub genes associated with the pathogenesis and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma via int... Meng Z, Wu J, Liu X 2020-07-29 PMC
Metabolic pathway alterations in microvascular endothelial cells in response to hypoxia Cohen EB, Geck RC, Toker A 2020-07-09 PMC
Approaches to studying the genomic architecture of complex birth defects Taiwo TE, Cao X, Cabrera RM 2020-06-29 PMC
Activation of transcription factor circuity in 2i-induced ground state pluripotency is independent of repressive global ... Shukla R, Mjoseng HK, Thomson JP 2020-06-25 PMC
An Update on Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Production Mailloux RJ 2020-06-02 PMC
Riboflavin Deficiency—Implications for General Human Health and Inborn Errors of Metabolism Mosegaard S, Dipace G, Bross P 2020-05-28 PMC
Genomic Blueprint of Glycine Betaine Metabolism in Coral Metaorganisms and Their Contribution to Reef Nitrogen Budgets Ngugi DK, Ziegler M, Duarte CM 2020-04-30 PMC
Gene expression dynamic analysis reveals co-activation of Sonic Hedgehog and epidermal growth factor followed by dynamic... Maroufy V, Shah P, Asghari A 2020-04-14 PMC
CDK1-PLK1/SGOL2/ANLN pathway mediating abnormal cell division in cell cycle may be a critical process in hepatocellular ... Li L, Huang K, Zhao H 2020-04-10 PMC
Network-based metabolic characterization of renal cell carcinoma Pandey N, Lanke V, Vinod PK 2020-04-06 PMC
Identification of HO-1 as a novel biomarker for graft acute cellular rejection and prognosis prediction after liver tran... Jia J, Nie Y, Geng L PMC
The different expression of glycogen phosphorylases in renal clear cell renal carcinoma and chromophobe renal carcinoma Lu Y, Luo G, Zhu S 2020-02-26 PMC
One carbon metabolism and folate transporter genes: Do they factor prominently in the genetic etiology of neural tube de... Steele JW, Kim SE, Finnell RH 2020-02-13 PMC
Precision medicine integrating whole-genome sequencing, comprehensive metabolomics, and advanced imaging Hou YC, Yu HC, Martin R 2020-01-24 PMC
Dysregulation of multiple metabolic networks related to brain transmethylation and polyamine pathways in Alzheimer disea... Mahajan UV, Varma VR, Griswold ME 2020-01-24 PMC
Genome-wide scan identifies novel genetic loci regulating salivary metabolite levels Nag A, Kurushima Y, Bowyer RC 2020-01-21 PMC
ERRATUM 2020-01-20 PMC
Dataset on the mass spectrometry-based proteomic profiling of the kidney from wild type and the dystrophic mdx-4cv mouse... Dowling P, Zweyer M, Raucamp M 2020-01-02 PMC
Schwann cell reprogramming and lung cancer progression: a meta-analysis of transcriptome data Silva VM, Gomes JA, Tenório LP 2019-12-31 PMC
LncRNA RP11-422N16.3 Inhibits Cell Proliferation and EMT, and Induces Apoptosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Spo... Sun Y, Zhou Q, Li J 2019-12-12 PMC
Systematic evaluation of differential splicing tools for RNA-seq studies Mehmood A, Laiho A, Venäläinen MS 2019-12-05 PMC
Short-term treatment with a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonist influences plasma one-carbon metabolite... Lysne V, Bjørndal B, Grinna ML 2019-12-05 PMC
Identification Of Novel lncRNAs For Detection Of HBV-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma Li Y, Chen X, Huang H 2019-11-27 PMC
Combined Omics Reveals That Disruption of the Selenocysteine Lyase Gene Affects Amino Acid Pathways in Mice Seale LA, Khadka VS, Menor M 2019-10-26 PMC
Genomic Basis of Convergent Island Phenotypes in Boa Constrictors Card DC, Adams RH, Schield DR 2019-10-23 PMC
Rrm2b deletion causes mitochondrial metabolic defects in renal tubules Chen YF, Lin IH, Guo YR 2019-09-13 PMC
Gene–gene interaction among cell adhesion genes and risk of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in Chine... Liu D, Wang M, Yuan Y 2019-08-16 PMC
miR-873-5p targets mitochondrial GNMT-Complex II interface contributing to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease Fernández-Tussy P, Fernández-Ramos D, Lo... 2019-08-16 PMC
A Network of SLC and ABC Transporter and DME Genes Involved in Remote Sensing and Signaling in the Gut-Liver-Kidney Axis Rosenthal SB, Bush KT, Nigam SK 2019-08-15 PMC
Genome-wide promoter DNA Methylation Profiling of Hepatocellular Carcinomas Arising Either Spontaneously or due to Chron... Kovi RC, Bhusari S, Mav D 2019-07-05 PMC
The effect of breed and diet type on the global transcriptome of hepatic tissue in beef cattle divergent for feed effici... Higgins MG, Kenny DA, Fitzsimons C 2019-06-26 PMC
Glycine Metabolism and Its Alterations in Obesity and Metabolic Diseases Alves A, Bassot A, Bulteau AL 2019-06-16 PMC
An acyl-CoA dehydrogenase microplate activity assay using recombinant porcine electron transfer flavoprotein Zhang Y, Mohsen AW, Kochersperger C 2019-06-10 PMC
Long noncoding RNA actin filament‐associated protein 1 antisense RNA 1 promotes malignant phenotype through binding with... Yu S, Yang D, Ye Y 2019-05-29 PMC
Analyses of a Panel of Transcripts Identified From a Small Sample Size and Construction of RNA Networks in Hepatocellula... Sheng Z, Wang X, Xu G 2019-05-08 PMC
Accumulation of rare coding variants in genes implicated in risk of human cleft lip with or without cleft palate Marini NJ, Asrani K, Yang W 2019-05-07 PMC
Transcriptome analysis identifies metallothionein as biomarkers to predict recurrence in hepatocellular cacinoma Wang S, Gribskov M 2019-05-06 PMC
Transcriptomic analysis reveals differences in the regulation of amino acid metabolism in asexual and sexual planarians Sekii K, Yorimoto S, Okamoto H 2019-04-16 PMC
Identification of coordinately regulated microRNA-gene networks that differ in baboons discordant for LDL-cholesterol Karere GM, Glenn JP, Birnbaum S 2019-03-15 PMC
Towards precision medicine for stress disorders: diagnostic biomarkers and targeted drugs Le-Niculescu H, Roseberry K, Levey DF 2019-03-12 PMC
Sarcosine is a prostate epigenetic modifier that elicits aberrant methylation patterns through the SAMe‐Dnmts axis Strmiska V, Michalek P, Lackova Z 2019-03-09 PMC
Transcriptomic analyses highlight the likely metabolic consequences of colonization of a cnidarian host by native or non... Lin MF, Takahashi S, Forêt S 2019-02-27 PMC
Transcriptomic analysis reveals protein homeostasis breakdown in the coral Acropora millepora during hypo-saline stress Aguilar C, Raina JB, Fôret S 2019-02-20 PMC
The OMICs Window into Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) Carulli L, Zanca G, Schepis F 2019-02-01 PMC
Choline‐related‐inherited metabolic diseases—A mini review Wortmann SB, Mayr JA 2019-01-25 PMC
Functional annotation of orthologs in metagenomes: a case study of genes for the transformation of oceanic dimethylsulfo... González JM, Hernández L, Manzano I 2019-01-14 PMC
Effects of PKM2 on global metabolic changes and prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma: from gene expression to drug disc... Lv WW, Liu D, Liu XC 2018-11-21 PMC
Gene expression profile of muscle adaptation to high-intensity intermittent exercise training in young men Miyamoto-Mikami E, Tsuji K, Horii N 2018-11-14 PMC
Adaptive effect of sericin on hepatic mitochondrial conformation through its regulation of apoptosis, autophagy and ener... Ampawong S, Isarangkul D, Reamtong O 2018-10-08 PMC
Targeting Hepatic Protein Carbonylation and Oxidative Stress Occurring on Diet-Induced Metabolic Diseases through the Su... Muñoz S, Méndez L, Dasilva G 2018-09-26 PMC
2D DIGE proteomic analysis reveals fasting‐induced protein remodeling through organ‐specific transcription factor(s) in ... Kamata S, Yamamoto J, Ohtani H 2018-08-13 PMC
Alterations of methionine metabolism in hepatocarcinogenesis: the emergent role of glycine N-methyltransferase in liver ... Simile MM, Latte G, Feo CF 2018-07-12 PMC
Betaine and Choline Improve Lipid Homeostasis in Obesity by Participation in Mitochondrial Oxidative Demethylation Sivanesan S, Taylor A, Zhang J 2018-07-10 PMC
Identification of genes associated with cortical malformation using a transposon-mediated somatic mutagenesis screen in ... Lu IL, Chen C, Tung CY 2018-06-27 PMC
Metabolic Effects of Betaine: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Betaine Supplementation in Prediabetes Grizales AM, Patti ME, Lin AP 2018-05-31 PMC
Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of milk production using integrative transcriptomic and proteomic analyses: impr... Dai W, Wang Q, Zhao F 2018-05-29 PMC
The Urinary Sarcosine/Creatinine Ratio is a Potential Diagnostic and Prognostic Marker in Prostate Cancer Wang M, Zou L, Liang J 2018-05-09 PMC
Multiomics biomarkers for the prediction of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease severity Pirola CJ, Sookoian S 2018-04-21 PMC
Genome-wide association study and functional analysis of feet and leg conformation traits in Nellore cattle Vargas G, Neves HH, Camargo GM 2018-04-20 PMC
Optimisation of quantitative miRNA panels to consolidate the diagnostic surveillance of HBV-related hepatocellular carci... Tat Trung N, Duong DC, Tong HV 2018-04-19 PMC
Differential expression of genes identified by suppression subtractive hybridization in liver and adipose tissue of gerb... Gong J, Du X, Li Z 2018-02-02 PMC
Deciphering microRNA targets in pancreatic cancer using miRComb R package Vila-Casadesús M, Vila-Navarro E, Raimon... 2018-01-08 PMC
T-cell immune regulator 1 enhances metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma Yang HD, Eun JW, Lee KB 2018-01-05 PMC
Oxidation of the FAD cofactor to the 8-formyl-derivative in human electron-transferring flavoprotein Augustin P, Toplak M, Fuchs K 2018-01-04 PMC
Identification of the key transcription factors in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma Zhang Y, Xu Y, Li Z PMC
Identification of metabolism-associated genes and pathways involved in different stages of clear cell renal cell carcino... Li HJ, Li WX, Dai SX 2017-12-08 PMC
Differences in global gene expression in muscle tissue of Nellore cattle with divergent meat tenderness Fonseca LF, Gimenez DF, dos Santos Silva... 2017-12-04 PMC
Title Authors Date Link
Patients with functional bowel disorder have disaccharidase deficiency: A single-center study from Russia Dbar S, Akhmadullina O, Sabelnikova E 2021-06-16 PMC
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Diarrhoea Management using Over-the-counter Nutraceuticals in Daily practice (DIAMOND): a feasibility RCT on alternative... Hu YJ, Zhou X, Wang S 2021-06-15 PMC
Review: microbial transformations of human bile acids Guzior DV, Quinn RA 2021-06-14 PMC
Tryptophan-kynurenine metabolism: a link between the gut and brain for depression in inflammatory bowel disease Chen LM, Bao CH, Wu Y 2021-06-14 PMC
The cerebral mechanism underlying the acupoints with specific effect for gallbladder stone disease: protocol for a rando... Sun N, Zhou YF, Zhou J 2021-06-14 PMC
Peak week recommendations for bodybuilders: an evidence based approach Escalante G, Stevenson SW, Barakat C 2021-06-13 PMC
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Silicon dioxide nanoparticles induced neurobehavioral impairments by disrupting microbiota–gut–brain axis Diao J, Xia Y, Jiang X 2021-06-10 PMC
Stress and corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) promote necrotizing enterocolitis in a formula-fed neonatal rat model Bell RL, Withers GS, Kuypers FA 2021-06-10 PMC
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Placebo From an Enactive Perspective Arandia IR, Di Paolo EA 2021-06-02 PMC
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Adverse events following mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination among U.S. nursing home residents Bardenheier BH, Gravenstein S, Blackman ... 2021-05-28 PMC
Exploring the bone sparing effects of postbiotics in the post-menopausal rat model Montazeri-Najafabady N, Ghasemi Y, Dabba... 2021-05-28 PMC
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Fat-restricted low-glycemic index diet controls weight and improves blood lipid profile: A pilot study among overweight ... Liu Y, Sun P, Shuai P 2021-05-28 PMC
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Title Authors Date Link
Genome-wide association study of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, D-dimer, and interleukin-6 levels in multiethnic H... Sherman BT, Hu X, Singh K 2021-10-20 PMC
The role of regulated necrosis in endocrine diseases Tonnus W, Belavgeni A, Beuschlein F 2021-06-16 PMC
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Immunotherapy in endometrial cancer: rationale, practice and perspectives Cao W, Ma X, Fischer JV 2021-06-16 PMC
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Simulation study and comparative evaluation of viral contiguous sequence identification tools Glickman C, Hendrix J, Strong M 2021-06-16 PMC
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Editorial commentary on Indian Journal of Gastroenterology—July–August 2021 Limdi JK 2021-06-16 PMC
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Patients with functional bowel disorder have disaccharidase deficiency: A single-center study from Russia Dbar S, Akhmadullina O, Sabelnikova E 2021-06-16 PMC
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100 years of Bacillus Calmette–Guérin immunotherapy: from cattle to COVID-19 Lobo N, Brooks NA, Zlotta AR 2021-06-15 PMC
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Review: microbial transformations of human bile acids Guzior DV, Quinn RA 2021-06-14 PMC
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Silicon dioxide nanoparticles induced neurobehavioral impairments by disrupting microbiota–gut–brain axis Diao J, Xia Y, Jiang X 2021-06-10 PMC
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Stress and corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) promote necrotizing enterocolitis in a formula-fed neonatal rat model Bell RL, Withers GS, Kuypers FA 2021-06-10 PMC
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Association between colorectal cancer and Fusobacterium nucleatum and Bacteroides fragilis bacteria in Iranian patients:... Shariati A, Razavi S, Ghaznavi-Rad E 2021-06-09 PMC
The influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms of NOD2 or CD14 on the risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis diseases: a s... Cubillos-Angulo JM, Fernandes CD, Araújo... 2021-06-09 PMC
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Diagnosis and management of acute appendicitis in 21 pediatric hematology and oncology patients at a tertiary care cance... von Mersi H, Benkö T, Boztug H 2021-06-09 PMC
Variable immunodeficiency score upfront analytical link (VISUAL), a proposal for combined prognostic score at diagnosis ... Guevara-Hoyer K, Jiménez-Huete A, Vascon... 2021-06-09 PMC
Triggering factors associated with a new episode of recurrent acute anterior uveitis Neti N, Pimsri A, Boonsopon S 2021-06-09 PMC
RANKL immunisation inhibits prostate cancer metastasis by modulating EMT through a RANKL-dependent pathway Park M, Cho YJ, Kim B 2021-06-09 PMC
Usefulness of bioelectrical impedance analysis and ECW ratio as a guidance for fluid management in critically ill patien... Chung YJ, Kim EY 2021-06-09 PMC
A Masked Diagnosis: Sigmoid Endometriosis Subbaraj L, Bowman CJ, Singh A 2021-06-09 PMC

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Discord

For coordination of research, email campaigns and general discussions there is a discord server available.

Please click the invite link to join.

Partners

Eurordis

Eurordis is a leading alliance of a big spectrum of rare disease organizations located in Europe.

www.eurordis.org

Rarefundingteam

Rarefundingteam provides support for rare disease organizations to improve their marketing activities and their funding opportunities

www.rarefundingteam.com

Findacure

Findacure is an organization with the goal to provide mentorship, training and advice to rare disease patient support groups to enable those groups to work efficiently towards our common goal: to make rare disease patients being heard and make diagnostic and treatment available to them.

www.findacure.org.uk

Other organizations

If other organizations want to enable a partnership with us, please let us know ...

About Us

We are a nonprofit patient group with a lot of members who are struggling with IMBS themselves.

Wherever possible, we try to drive research on IMBS in general and we also try to support individual patients as much as possible.

Domain owner and responsible for the content: Danny Kunz

Address: Danny Kunz Heilbronnerstr. 16/2 71634 Ludwigsburg Germany

Email: contact@imbs-alliance.org (Legal concerns around the domain and content) support@imbs-alliance.org (Patient support)

Phone: +49 151 565 273 00 (Please use this phone contact only for legal concerns around the domain and content, we are not able to provide phone support for patients at this moment)

External links: Even if the external links to other web sites are carefully investigated, we will not take any responsibility for any part of the full content of the external websites.

The privacy policy can be downloaded here in PDF format.

As alternative the privacy policy is available in simple text format here .

To view the file in PDF format use Acrobat PDF Reader which can be downloaded here .

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