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Intestinal Metabolic Bromhidrosis Syndrome Alliance

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As odorous intestinal metabolites cross the intestinal wall barrier and liver they are excreted in sweat and breath. The resulting symptoms are called Bromhidrosis and Halitosis.

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As we do not maintain an own forum, we refer to the multilingual RareConnect forum, where posts are translated to multiple languages.

RareConnect is provided by EURORDIS .

The RareConnect forum is grouped by rare disease communities. At the current point in time there are two groups available:

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Discord Server

For coordination of research, email campaigns and general discussions there is a discord server available for the IMBS community.

A discord server provides a place with live chats, audio and video channels. ( Discord Homepage )

You can join a discord server via the discord android or iOS mobile app, via native windows and linux applications or your webbrowser.

Please click the following link to join the IMBS discord server:

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Our patient guide is available as PDF document.

It includes a quick overview over IMBS and community and contact information.

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Our doctor's guide is available as PDF document.

It includes a quick overview over IMBS diagnostic and community and contact information.

As patient this allows you to hand over a first disease description to your general practitioner.

As a doctor this gives you a first introduction into the syndrome and its diagnostic space.

Download

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As our projects are mainly available under GitHub, it is possible from now on to support us via the GitHub sponsoring program.

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Patient Information

Definition

Intestinal Metabolic Bromhidrosis Syndrome (IMBS) defines a type of bromhidrosis that is caused by odorous intestinal metabolites, which pass the intestinal and liver metabolism and are excreted through the skin.

IMBS represents a group of subtly different syndromes caused by different underlying diseases, which share the fact that their patients suffer from chronic body odor. This strongly impacts their quality of life, not limited to but especially in the work environment.

Classical Medical/Dermatological View

The current support by classical medical institutions is extremely limited: Official research in the field of bromhidrosis was neglectable in the past decades and general intestinal research has not yet connected their research to the dermatological fields.

The classical dermatological research on bromhidrosis [1] mostly focuses on either topical treatments which have only a small ameliorating effect or on the removal of axillary skin glands by surgery. In cases of Trimethylaminuria (TMAU), patients currently mostly only receive dietary advice or are, in some cases, prescribed non-resorbable antibiotics [2] .

Recent Intestinal Medical Research

Newer research hypotheses focus more on the intestinal tract as the source of bromhidrosis and halitosis symptomes [3] . It is already clear that trimethylamine, which is the odorous compound responsible for TMAU type 1, is only one small player of various odorous metabolites available in the intestinal tract metabolism. There are well known further players such as carboxylates (e.g. butyrate, isovalerate), amines, sulfuric compounds, ammonia, methyl mercaptan and indole to name some of them. As the different metabolites move through their metabolic cycle, they pass, in different amounts, the intestinal wall through the intestinal epithelial layers and thus end up in the blood stream, towards the liver. In cases in which the liver metabolism is not able to handle the volume of intestinal metabolites, the metabolites pass on to be excreted by the lung gas exchange and by the outer skin sweat glands.

Bromhidrosis diseases and metabolites and gene overview

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Treatments
Symptom Treatment Effectiveness Approved by medical studies
Fish body odor Diet / Reduction of TMA containing fish and choline, betaine and carnitine containing foods 75% Yes
Fish body odor (TMAU type 2) Prescription of non resorbable antibiotics for short periods 75% Yes
Fish body odor Riboflavin supplementation 50% Yes
Fish and fecal body odor (TMAU type 2) Folate or MTHF supplementation unknown No
Fish and fecal body odor (TMAU type 2) Vitamine B12 supplementation unknown No
Fish and fecal body odor (TMAU type 2) Vitamine B6 supplementation unknown No
Fish and fecal body odor (TMAU type 2) SAMe supplementation unknown No
Fish and fecal body odor (TMAU type 2) Dietary avoidance of cysteine unknown No
Fecal body odor Glycine, Serine supplementation unknown No
Fecal body odor Choline and Folate supplementation unknown No
Fecal body odor Avoidance of benzoates, cinnamate and salicylates unknown No
Fecal body odor Avoidance of benzimidazoles like e.g. proton pump inhibitors unknown No
Fecal body odor Avoidance of stress unknown No
Fecal body odor Champex/Deodorex 10% No
Fecal body odor Dietary avoidance of D-Ribose unknown No
Fecal body odor Dietary avoidance of phosphoric acid + glucose / fructose (like e.g. Coca Cola) unknown No
Rotten eggs body odor none
Urine like body odor Protein reduction diet + prescription of non resorbable antibiotics for short periods unknown No
Urine like body odor Sodium Benzoate supplementation (consultation of a medical professional is a must) unknown No
Axillary body odor Strong antitranspirants 10% Yes
Sweat like body odor Full body application of antitranspirant + deodorant combination 10% No
Sweat/Vomit/sweaty feet like body odor Taurine, Magnesium and potassium supplements 50% No
Sweat/Vomit/sweaty feet like body odor Daily intestinal cleanings e.g. with Macrogol (can be dangerous - consultation of a medical professional upfront is a must) 30% No
Sweat/Vomit/sweaty feet like body odor Tyrosine supplements 10% No
Vomit/sweaty feet with additional urine like body odor Sodium Benzoate supplementation (consultation of a medical professional is a must) unknown No
Vomit like body odor Mangan supplements 10% No
Cabbage like body odor/halitosis Diet unknown No
IBS-C (constipation) Topinambur powder (long chain carbohydrate degrading into fructose) [Warning: Body odor elevation] 15% No
IBS-C (constipation) Magnesium oxide + citrate 15% No

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Research News

Metabolic markers:

  • Glycine

  • Citrulline

  • Choline

  • Betaine

  • Trimethylamine (TMA)

Genes:

  • BHMT

  • BHMT2

  • DMGDH

  • FMO3

  • CPS1

Link

A research paper investigates more deeply into the altered microbiotic compositions that occur in Trimethylaminuria type 2 patients.

Their investigation revealed first possible interference links from altered microbial metabolites to neurological pathways in the humand metabolism.

Some hypothesized alterations in metabolites are:

  • SCFAs (Lactate, Acetate, Butyrate, Propionate, ...)

  • ...

Hypothesized interference with human metabolites and enzymes:

  • Glutamate

  • GABA

  • Serotonine

  • Tryptophan

  • Quinolate

  • Norepinephrine

  • Dopamine

  • Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT)

  • Phosphatidylethanolamine

  • Phosphatidylcholine

  • Choline

  • Betaine transport

Link

A research study from May 2019 found that in urine samples of patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) various compounds were elevated:

  • Dimethylglycine

  • Glutamine

  • Lysine and Lysine compounds

  • Tryptophan compound

  • Ornithine

  • Imidazolepropionate

  • Dimethylguanosine

  • Serine

Especially the elevated Dimethylglycine compounds are also known from Dimethylglycinuria, which can also cause fish odor symptoms.

This is a potential first link between fish odor syndrome (TMAU2) and IBS.

Link

A small study around Jun Nishihira tried to investigate in the effects of champignon extract (Champex) on body odor and halitosis.

The study design is based on a patient questionaire, which gives a weak indication that Champex can improve regular body odor of elderly patients.

It is unclear at the moment if those results will apply to IMBS patients.

Link

In March 2020 a new research paper was published regarding a new treatment solution for Trimethylaminuria using engineered polymersomes...

Link

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Diagnostic

Official diagnostic tests:

  • Urine and genetic test for trimethylaminuria [1]

  • Urine and genetic test for dimethylglycinuria [2]

  • Genetic testing for SELENBP1 (Halitosis) [3]

  • Blood testing for Dimethylsulphidemia (Halitosis) [4]

  • Blood testing for Hyperammonemia in the context of weak urea cycle disorders [5]

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There are two guideline documents available for download.

The first guide is addressing patients: Patient's guide

The second guide is addressing medical practitioners: Doctor's guide

Those guides are free to copy and multiply.

If you as a patient want to visit e.g. your general practitioner with the topic of IMBS symptoms the first time, please print out the doctor's guide on paper and provide it to your general practitioner to support him/her in gathering relevant information.

Not verified and explorative tests:

Blood tests

  • Ammonia blood test (available by your general practitioner)

Amino acids blood spot tests

Urine sample tests

Tests known from research studies

  • SCFAs (including butyrate and isovalerate) blood to stool ratio ( [1] )

Other unspecific tests

  • PTH (Parathyroid hormone) blood test

  • Low blood potassium levels

Notes:

  • Organic aciduria urine tests are regularly without any result (In those diseases all organs and cell are affected and the kidneys and liver are not able to mask any metabolite)

  • In IMBS patients deficiencies of enzymes seem to be very limited to intestinal and liver metabolism, which results in masking of metabolites by liver and kidneys. Again its worth to mention the short half time below 10 minutes of butyrates in blood and also ( [2] ) once more, as the paper shows a reduction of factor 4 of e.g. butyrate levels compared from portal vein blood to blood within the circulation after the liver

  • In IMBS cases in general blood tests have the ability to reveal more direct metabolites compared to urine tests

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Rare disease centers

We encourage all patients to contact rare disease centers in their respective country. Please prepare yourself as most medical practitioners have no special or even no knowledge at all around anaerobic metabolites and that they occur in the human metabolism. Normally specialists that know about those metabolites can be found in the field of classical organic acidurias, but they normally lack special knowledge of intestinal diseases. Nevertheless they might be a first contact point which can route patients to specialist in intestinal research diagnostic. In order to help them find the correct contact persons, you can also refer them to the IMBS homepage, where they can get a detailed overview about the disease. Also make them aware that classical organic acid screenings via urine sample tests are already known to not be applicable to IMBS patients.

Official genetic testing (Germany)

In Germany it is required by law, if a genetic test should be applied, that patients receive genetic counseling before the test. Genetic counseling is normally also handled by rare disease centers, so those are a first contact point.

There are also laboratories available which allow to pay privately and also offer genetic counseling:

Note: German health insurance providers pay now for necessary genetic tests for a small number of target genes (<=20). This opens a new way also for IMBS patients with not enough private money for WES or WGS screenings to ask for genetic testing for their condition.

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Genova Diagnostics

Genova Diagnostics is a private service provider that offers mainly metabolomic but also genomic tests. They offer their services in US and UK at the moment. In normal cases they work together with specialized general practitioners as contact to private end users.

Homepage

Medivere Diagnostics

Medivere Diagnostics offers small standard blood, urine and stool tests to end users in their online shop. Their service is available in Germany.

Homepage

Cerascreen

Cerascreen provides an online shop which offers e.g. standard amino acid blood spot tests but also a wide variety of standard tests. Their online shop is available in Germany.

Homepage

IFU Wolfhagen

IFU Wolfhagen offers e.g. urine analytic panels in their online shop. Their services is available in Germandy.

Homepage

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Amino Acids

The different smell types the IMBS patients suffer from are associated to different odorous compounds. Those odorous compounds are very often also part of the close degradation or synthesis of amino acids.

Following you find the relations between odorous compounds and amino acids:

Fish odor / Trimethylamine

  • Choline

  • Betaine

  • Lecithin

  • Carnitine

Fecal body odor / Indole, Skatole

  • Tryptophan

  • Glycine

  • Serine

  • Phenylalanine

  • Tyrosine

  • Histidine

Foul eggs body odor / Sulfur compounds

  • Cysteine

  • Methionine

  • Taurine

Urine body odor / Ammonia

  • Ornithine

  • Aspartate

  • Citrulline

  • Arginine

  • Glycine

  • Serine

  • Glutamine

  • Glutamate

Vomit body odor / butyrate

  • Lysine

  • Valine

(Also amino acids from urine body odor can apply)

Sweaty feet / isovalerate

  • Leucine

  • Isoleucine

(Also amino acids from urine body odor can apply)

Rotten meat like / Putrescine, Cadaverine

  • Ornithine (Putrescine)

  • Lysine (Cadaverine)

Garbage like / Hydrogen sulfide, Dimethyl sulfide, Methanethiol, Putrescine, Cadaverine, Trimethylamine, Ammonia, Acetaldehyde, Acetate

This is a mixture of previous groups. [1]

Dietary approach

We strongly recommend to not use full elimination diets in any form for a longer period of time.

Cravings are normally a sign of the body for the need of certain nutrients. Do not ignore them in the context of a reduction diet in a context of a certain amino acid.

Also be aware that the listed amino acids are only grouped by colocation within biochemical pathway boundaries. Some diseased will perhaps only affect one amino acid within a group or also only some from a combinations of groups.

As an real life example a blood spot amino acid screening revealed following amino acids to be out of normal ranges:

  • Tryptophan: ++

  • Glycine: ++

  • Serine: ++

  • Lysine: -

  • Ornithine: ++

  • Aspartate: ++

  • Histidine: +

Symbols:

  • '++' = high above normal range

  • '+' = very high but within normal range

  • '-' = very low but within normal range

  • '--' = below normal range

As you can see such a amino acid screening might give some hints what to supplement and what to reduce within the diet.

Be still aware of the fact, that is unclear at the moment how to correctly react on certain amino acid levels to be above or below normal ranges.

There are certain hints present that some type of odorous metabolites do actually stabilize the harmed intestinal metabolism to a certain degree, others dont.

So a wrong dietary elimination choice might also increase the damage to intestinal cells over time, even if the body odor or halitosis was reduced for a period of time.

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From our personal observation in patient research, hyperhidrosis (extensive sweating) can be a correlating symptom to bromhidrosis, but it does not have to be present. We perceive only a small fraction of the patients to have actually both bromhidrosis and hyperhidrosis symptoms.

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Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) [1] is defined as a chronic functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. It is characterized by abdominal pain and/or changes in bowel movements.

Our observation shows that about 20-30% of IMBS patients also suffer from IBS or begin to suffer after some years of chronic body odor symptoms.

Also our observation shows that a fecal body odor seems to be more likely associated with IBS-D and a sweat/vomit/sweaty feet body odor is more likely associated with IBS-C.

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Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)

Introduction

Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is an approach to allows to sequence parts or the whole DNA/RNA strand structure of the human genomes. The NGS approach has emerged more and more in the past decade to be used as method within research studies to isolate causal relationships to diseases and their symptoms.

See also Wikibook about NGS and the underlying techniques

Criteria for NGS services

Depending on the country laws there are not only official medical institutions available that offer NGS services to patients but also private service providers.

If NGS services should utilized to get more information about a potential underlying disease, it is important to know about some important attributes of the different provided services.

  • Type of sequencing: whole genome (WGS) [1] or whole exome (WES) [2]

  • Coverage [3] : represents the number of times the sequencing covered the same target reference area

  • Sequencing result provided in file formats: VCF (with/without annotations), FASTQ, BAM

Cost perspective:

  • WGS 20x : ~ 600€

  • WES 20x : ~ 400€

(prices do heavily change over time and between different service providers)

Requirements for medical representative evaluations:

  • At the moment a minimum of a 20x coverage of the target area is accepted to allow a medical relevant interpretation

  • WGS includes the intron areas but is not yet easily interpretable as the intron areas are prone to high variations, but that improves steadily over time (so the data from today might be utilizable in the future just by reinterpretation of the data by newer software applications and new entries in the variant databases)

Regarding ancestry services like 23andMe:

The ancestry services like 23andMe are very limited in the sense of which parts of the exome area is targeted/covered and how often the target area is read (read coverage). The process of 23andme rely on genotyping approaches and not on WES or WGS. [4]

We do not recommend ancestry services for medical relevant investigations, instead we recommend at least a WES 20x offer by a service provider who provides at least annotated VCF files or even better additionally the original FASTQ files which contains the raw sequencing information.

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Medically known genes

A limited set of gene defects is already known to be related to chronic body odor and/or halitosis.

  • FMO3 (Trimethylaminuria) [1]

  • DMGDH (Dimethylglycine dehydrogenase deficiency) [2]

  • SELENBP1 (Methanethiol oxidase deficiency / EHMTO) [3]

Explorative gene candidates

For other body odor or halitosis types there are no official gene defects known so far. But there are gene candidates available that might be involved because they encode enzymes, transporters, receptors around biochemical pathways related to certain odorous metabolites.

Sweat or vomit, sweaty feet like body odor / Carboxylates, Butyrate, Isovalerate...

Direct enzyme defects:

  • ACSM2B

  • ACSM5

  • ACSM2A

Indirectly involved defects:

  • CPS1 (also as benign qualified variants with known elevated glycine levels)

Also potentially indirectly involved genes:

  • MYLK

  • ATP10B

  • AGXT2

  • SLC28A1

  • SLC23A1

  • SLC17A4

  • SLC10A2

Fecal body odor / Indole,Skatole

  • BHMT2

  • CYP2E1

  • CYP2B

  • CYP2A6

Fecal and sweat like body odor / IBS-C and IBS-D related genes

  • GUCY2C

  • TRPV3

  • SCN5A

  • AQP8

  • IDO1

  • PGP

  • GAD2

  • FAAH

  • NPSR1

  • FUT2

Semiautomated gene reports

We provide semiautomated reports based on gene analysis results from an IMBS patient cohort.

  • Genes with intestinal and liver expression that where matched by at least two patients: Report

  • Genes of IMBS patient cohort matched against genes of IBS research publications: Report

Additional note

It is not necessary that always a genetic defect is present in chronic body odor cases. There are also reports from patients that the symptoms started after food poisoning or antibiotic treatment.

So be aware that a metabolome analysis in those cases would reveal more information.

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In metabolome studies following metabolic markers have been observed to be potentially out of normal ranges in IMBS patients:

  • Benzoate / Benzoic acid

  • Hippurate / Hippuric acid

  • Tartarate / Tartaric acid

  • Orotate / Orotic acid

  • Cis-aconitate / Cis-aconitic acid

  • Succinate / Succinic acid

  • Isocitrate

  • Fumarate

  • Hydroxymethylglutarate

  • Histidine

  • Taurine

  • Threonine

  • Tryptophan

  • Glycine

  • Serine

  • Phosphoserine

  • Vanilmandelate

  • Homovanillate

  • Ornithine

  • Citrulline

  • Pyroglutamate

  • Para-hydroxyphenylacetate

  • Anserine

  • Carnosine

  • 1-Methylhistidine

  • beta-alanine

  • Linoleate / linoleic acid

  • Potassium

  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

Feedback

For the IMBS patient subgroup, which shows a fecal like body odor, the metabolites indole and secondary skatole are in the focus as those metabolites are creating a strong fecal like scent.

We expect at least three different types of causative reasons in those subgroups:

  • Enzyme deficiencies in directly indole degrading enzymes like e.g. CYP2E1, CYP2B, ...

  • Enzyme deficiencies in the choline -> glycine degradation pathway (BHMT2, Methyltetrahydrofolate cluster)

  • Enzyme deficiencies in the lower glycine + benzoate -> hippurate degradation pathway

Shikimate pathway forming Tryptophan over Indole

The shikimate pathway [1] is a microbial pathway which is responsible for the biosynthesis of tryptophan combining indole and glyine/serine [2] .

As its precursors glycine and serine and the product tryptophan are involved, the human degradation pathways of those amino acids might be of high relevancy for the elevated formation of indole.

Also of high importance are glutamine and glutamate as they are related to the source of the second precursor anthranilate of the indole synthesis.

Choline -> Glycine degradation pathway

A subgroup of fecal body odor patients do show also positive Trimethylaminuria urine tests. Which indicates a formation of elevated Trimethylamine (TMA) levels in the intestinal area. One reason could be a impaired choline uptake and degradation which results in an elevated degradation of choline to TMA in the intestinal lumen. As the degradation pathway of choline also affects the availability of glycine and serine, it is a promising candidate branch to be also responsible for an elevated indole concentration.

For this subgroup folate supplementation might be helpful, as folate supports the choline, betaine -> glycine, serine degradation.

Glycine + Benzoate -> Hippurate degradation pathway

In metabolome analysis results for fecal body odor patients we observed elevated benzoate with at the same time below normal ranges hippurate levels. Glycine levels were normally low but in normal range.

This is related to the glycine detoxification mechanism [3] , which could be impaired in this subgroup of IMBS patients by too low availability of glycine or serine.

If the indication of a too low availability of glycine and serine is correct, the low levels would impair the bile acid salt conjugation with glycine and lower the availability of glycine in the intestinal lumen.

The ration glycine/taurine would shift and the tryptophan formation over indole + glycine might be impaired with the result of elevated indole concentrations in the intestinal lumen.

High Glutamate, Glycine, Ornithine, Citrulline, Tryptophan, Phenylalanine, Tyrosine, Methionine, Taurine, BCAAs, Ammonia and low Arginine, Glutamine, Lysine -> Urea cycle deficiency

Elevations in various amino acids related to the ammonia degradation have been found with transitive hyperammonemia. This indicates the possibility of a second gene defect in the urea cycle pathway being the source of a fecal smell.

CYP enzyme family

Some CYP family enzymes are known to degradate indole to less odorous metabolites.

Examples are:

  • CYP2E1, CYP2B [4]

Those are prominent candidates for enzyme deficiencies that might lead to an impaired indole degradation.

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For the IMBS patient subgroup, which shows a vomit like, sweat like or sweaty feet like body odor, the main scent driving metabolites are from the carboxylates group:

  • Butyrate (Vomit like)

  • Isovalerate (Sweaty feet like, cheesy)

  • Hexanoate

We expect at least two different types of causative reasons:

  • Enzyme deficiencies in directly butyrate or isovalerate degrading enzymes like e.g. ACSM2B , ...

  • Mitochondrial impairment of intestinal barrier cells, e.g. by local hyperammonia in those cells (not systemic)

ACSM2B and deficiencies in the degradation pathway (IMBS Carboxylate Type 1)

In contrast to other odorous metabolites, the carboxylates group is a major energy source for the intestinal barrier cells and the liver.

The also known term 'short chain fatty acids' (SCFAs) refers mostly to a subset of carboxylates but also including e.g. methylated forms of them.

Following genes and enzymes are prominent candidates for enzyme deficiencies:

  • ACSM2B / EC 6.2.1.2 butyrate CoA ligase

  • A possible unknown gene encoding an isovalerate CoA ligase

Important is the aspect that e.g. the ACSM2B is also involved in salicylates, benzoate and phenylacetate in a lesser extend.

Also important:

  • Magnesium

  • Mangan

are cofactors of those enzymes. Supplementation of those could improve enzyme efficiency.

Mitochondrial impairment of the intestinal barrier cells by ammonia (IMBS Carboxylate Type 2 / IMBS CPS1)

Another possible causative situation can occur, if the mitochondrial activity of the intestinal barrier cells is impaired. One reason can be elevated cell local concentrations of ammonia, which would impair the degradation of the short chain acids (carboxylates) taken up from the colon. A typical sign in the later progress in this case can be IBS-C (constipation) symptoms which are caused from nerve function impairment e.g. in the sigma of the colon. Those symptoms can be present immediately or set in after years of the first bromhidrosis symptoms.

Food list (bad):

  • Cheese (High Glutamate)

  • Red meat (High amino acids content)

Metabolome biomarkers

Possible observations in that case are:

  • Slightly elevated ornithine, glycine, serine levels in blood

  • Also possibly slightly elevated Tryptophan, Histidine, Threonine levels in blood

  • Mainly elevated citrulline levels in urine

  • Low potassium (ammonia impairs potassium uptake indirectly by binding to the potassium receptors)

  • Low benzoate/benzoic acid levels in urine

During sodium benzoate treatment:

  • Very high hippurate/hippuric acid levels in urine

Genetic markers

  • Weak deficiencies in the CPS1 gene encoding the Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (Urea cycle disorder)

  • Example variant: rs1047883 [1]

Deficiencies in the CPS1 also including those marked as benign for hyperammonemia in the peripheral blood. Especially those which are linked also to elevated glycine levels in blood.

The qualification as benign is not related to benign in the context of IMBS as in IMBS cases the local hyperammonia in intestinal barrier cells can not necessarily be quantified by blood tests at the moment.

Treatment

  • Standard hyperammonia treatment with sodium benzoate orally (<5g distributed over the day) can show here very good effects reducing the nerve pain sensation for the IBS-C symptoms as well

  • Reducing the dietary amount of glycine and serine (or protein in general)

  • Reducing the dietary amount of glutamine, glutamate, aspartate, lysine and ornithine

  • Reducing the uptake of calcium

  • Increase of the magnesium (oxide or carbonate, not only citrate!) uptake

  • Increase of potassium uptake

  • Supplementation of Topinambur as inulin supplement, which is degraded as long chain carbohydrate to fructose mostly in the large intestinal tract (Increases the smell, but ameliorates the ammonia impairment of the mitchondria - should be taken first time after 1 week of sodium benzoate treatment)

Additional observations

  • Also an observation is that the impaired colon motility leads to fat accumulation in the colon, which could be an additional aspect related to the increased SCFAs concentrations.

  • Magnesium carbonate and oxide (also all other carbonates) should be taken in small amounts (1 capsule per day) and with care, as they easily elevate the intestinal pH up to pH 10, which can injure the intestinal wall.

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Cancer Research

Connection between subtypes of IMBS and butyrate

The field of cancer research seems to be far away from IMBS research on the first glance.

Interestingly it turns out to be the complete opposite if we take a look on biochemical side of some patient subgroups of IMBS and their affected metabolic compounds.

There are patients that report to have a very strong 'vomit' like body odor. The related metabolite known to have such an odor signature is butyrate in water solution.

What is butyrate?

Butyrate is the salt form of butyric acid which is widely known to be the major contributor to the smell of vomit.

As salt it can come in various combinations with different cations like:

  • Sodium (Na+)

  • Magnesium (Mg2+)

  • Potassium (K+)

  • Calcium (Ca2+)

E.g. sodium butyrate is also commonly available over the counter in supplement form.

Butyrate suppresses cancer growth in vitro but is not stable enough in blood stream

In the cancer research field Butryrates have been observed to have a strong growth suppressing effect of cancer cells in vitro. [1]

Unfortunately explorative studies, which tried to utilize a butyrate solution as blood infusion, failed to stabilize the butyrates in the blood circulation. Butyrates turned out to have very short stability half times of under 10 minutes before they get consumed and degraded by the human cells. [2]

Butyrate relevance in IBD

Newer research on the side of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBS) showed now some diagnostic advances which revealed e.g. 'naturally' elevated isobutyrate levels in a small sample group of IBD patients. [3]

In other words, carboxylates like butyrate or isobutyrate can be elevated in the intestinal -> liver axis and are obviously not causing any harm as IBD patients are normally regarded as healthy beside their intestinal inflammation issues.

Resulting hypotheses

This new direction results in two hypotheses:

  • butyrates or carboxylates (like e.g. also isovalerate) in general might also be elevated in IMBS patient groups as their odors do match exactly the signature of those compounds

  • for cancer treatment support it might be possible to reproduce similar blood levels of butyrates easily by oral over supplementation (with likely resulting bromhidrosis symptomes) and this might result in a suppressed cancer growth, if the cancer is located on the intestinal -> liver blood axis.

Additional personal observation

  • As part of a investigation and visualization of a colorectal tumour sample from a tumour located in the descending colon, we applied a double mRNA expression analysis on the tumour sample and a healthy gut wall sample close to the tumour location

  • Comparison of enzyme expression levels showed that not only the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was over expressed, but also e.g. the butyryl-CoA synthetase (EC 6.2.1.2) was overexpressed. This might give a first hint that the anaerobic inner cancer metabolism does also supports its ATP supply by the reverse reaction that results in a butyrate synthesis like in a typical bacterial metabolism.

  • A theoretical result would be the hypothesis that increased butyrate levels would suppress the ATP supply of the inner cancer core cells and therefore would reduce cancer growth. This hypothetical consequence is already verified by experimental investigations prior to it. (See references in the above text)

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Library
Title Authors Date Link
Plasma levels of trimethylamine-N-oxide can be increased with ‘healthy’ and ‘unhealthy’ diets and do not correlate with ... Koay YC, Chen YC, Wali JA 2020-04-08 PMC
The MttB superfamily member MtyB from the human gut symbiont Eubacterium limosum is a cobalamin-dependent γ-butyrobetain... Ellenbogen JB, Jiang R, Kountz DJ 2021-10-21 PMC
Indoles Derived From Glucobrassicin: Cancer Chemoprevention by Indole-3-Carbinol and 3,3'-Diindolylmethane Williams DE 2021-10-01 PMC
A Brief History of Hepatic Encephalopathy Bass NM 2021-10-29 PMC
Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Pathway: A Potential Target for the Treatment of MAFLD Li X, Hong J, Wang Y 2021-10-01 PMC
Identification of Specific Substances in the FAIMS Spectra of Complex Mixtures Using Deep Learning Li H, Pan J, Zeng H 2021-09-14 PMC
A simplified LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of the cardiovascular disease biomarker trimethylamine-N-oxide and i... Rox K, Rath S, Pieper DH 2021-03-26 PMC
The Accumulation and Molecular Effects of Trimethylamine N-Oxide on Metabolic Tissues: It’s Not All Bad Krueger ES, Lloyd TS, Tessem JS 2021-08-21 PMC
Elucidation of an anaerobic pathway for metabolism of l-carnitine–derived γ-butyrobetaine to trimethylamine in human gut... Rajakovich LJ, Fu B, Bollenbach M 2021-08-06 PMC
Multi-Pharmacology of Berberine in Atherosclerosis and Metabolic Diseases: Potential Contribution of Gut Microbiota Yang S, Li D, Yu Z 2021-07-09 PMC
Differential Diagnosis of Chorea—HIV Infection Delays Diagnosis of Huntington’s Disease by Years Achenbach J, Faissner S, Saft C 2021-05-27 PMC
Trimethylaminuria and Vascular Complications Oliveira-Filho AF, Medeiros PF, Velloso ... 2021-05-03 PMC
A Case of Fishy Smell-Fish Malodor Syndrome Wang AW, Greenberg PD, Saul SR 2021-05-03 PMC
Trimethylamine modulates dauer formation, neurodegeneration, and lifespan through tyra‐3/daf‐11 signaling in Caenorhabdi... Khanna A, Sellegounder D, Kumar J 2021-04-05 PMC
Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Levels Are Similar in Asymptomatic vs. Symptomatic Cerebrovascular Atherosclerosis Heyse M, Schneider C, Monostori P 2021-03-19 PMC
Cancer interception by interceptor molecules: mechanistic, preclinical and human translational studies with chlorophylls Dashwood RH 2021-03-06 PMC
Flavin-Containing Monooxygenases Are Conserved Regulators of Stress Resistance and Metabolism Huang S, Howington MB, Dobry CJ 2021-02-12 PMC
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) in human health Gatarek P, Kaluzna-Czaplinska J 2021-02-11 PMC
Genomic Insights into Adaptations of Trimethylamine-Utilizing Methanogens to Diverse Habitats, Including the Human Gut de la Cuesta-Zuluaga J, Spector TD, Youn... 2021-02-09 PMC
Gut-Brain Axis Cross-Talk and Limbic Disorders as Biological Basis of Secondary TMAU Donato L, Alibrandi S, Scimone C 2021-01-31 PMC
Solvent Accessibility of Residues Undergoing Pathogenic Variations in Humans: From Protein Structures to Protein Sequenc... Savojardo C, Manfredi M, Martelli PL 2021-01-07 PMC
Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Dad-13 powder consumption on the gut microbiota and intestinal health of ove... Rahayu ES, Mariyatun M, Putri Manurung N... 2021-01-07 PMC
Le Carbone prevents liver damage in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis-hepatocellular carcinoma mouse model via AMPKα-SIRT1 s... Afrin MR, Arumugam S, Pitchaimani V 2021-01-05 PMC
Role of Gut Microbiota and Their Metabolites on Atherosclerosis, Hypertension and Human Blood Platelet Function: A Revie... Duttaroy AK 2021-01-03 PMC
Choline Acetyltransferase Induces the Functional Regeneration of the Salivary Gland in Aging SAMP1/Kl -/- Mice Toan NK, Tai NC, Kim SA 2021-01-02 PMC
Ancestral reconstruction of mammalian FMO1 enables structural determination, revealing unique features that explain its ... Bailleul G, Nicoll CR, Mascotti ML 2020-12-25 PMC
How Can Drug Metabolism and Transporter Genetics Inform Psychotropic Prescribing? Carvalho Henriques B, Yang EH, Lapetina ... 2020-12-08 PMC
Use of Flavin-Containing Monooxygenases for Conversion of Trimethylamine in Salmon Protein Hydrolysates Goris M, Puntervoll P, Rojo D 2020-11-24 PMC
Structural basis of carnitine monooxygenase CntA substrate specificity, inhibition, and intersubunit electron transfer Quareshy M, Shanmugam M, Townsend E 2020-11-23 PMC
Insight into the intestinal microbiome of farrowing sows following the administration of garlic (Allium sativum) extract... Satora M, Magdziarz M, Rząsa A 2020-11-13 PMC
Drug Discovery and Development of Novel Therapeutics for Inhibiting TMAO in Models of Atherosclerosis and Diabetes Steinke I, Ghanei N, Govindarajulu M 2020-10-29 PMC
An Expanded Genetic Code Enables Trimethylamine Metabolism in Human Gut Bacteria Kivenson V, Giovannoni SJ 2020-10-27 PMC
Impact of trimethylaminuria on daily psychosocial functioning Roddy D, McCarthy P, Nerney D 2020-10-06 PMC
Vitamin D Decreases Plasma Trimethylamine-N-oxide Level in Mice by Regulating Gut Microbiota Wang X, Li X, Dong Y 2020-10-05 PMC
Role of drug metabolizing enzymes in chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity and hepatotoxicity Tao G, Huang J, Moorthy B 2020-09-02 PMC
A benzoxazole derivative as an inhibitor of anaerobic choline metabolism by human gut microbiota Gabr MT, Machalz D, Pach S 2020-08-28 PMC
Heart Failure Disturbs Gut–Blood Barrier and Increases Plasma Trimethylamine, a Toxic Bacterial Metabolite Drapala A, Szudzik M, Chabowski D 2020-08-26 PMC
Regulation of dynamic pigment cell states at single-cell resolution Perillo M, Oulhen N, Foster S 2020-08-19 PMC
Mitochondrial and Peroxisomal Alterations Contribute to Energy Dysmetabolism in Riboflavin Transporter Deficiency Colasuonno F, Niceforo A, Marioli C 2020-08-12 PMC
The Relationship between Choline Bioavailability from Diet, Intestinal Microbiota Composition, and Its Modulation of Hum... Arias N, Arboleya S, Allison J 2020-08-05 PMC
Effect of Choline Forms and Gut Microbiota Composition on Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Response in Healthy Men Cho CE, Aardema ND, Bunnell ML 2020-07-25 PMC
MtcB, a member of the MttB superfamily from the human gut acetogen Eubacterium limosum, is a cobalamin-dependent carniti... Kountz DJ, Behrman EJ, Zhang L 2020-06-22 PMC
Plasma Trimethylamine N-Oxide and Its Precursors: Population Epidemiology, Parent–Child Concordance, and Associations wi... Andraos S, Lange K, Clifford SA 2020-06-10 PMC
Nonlethal Inhibition of Gut Microbial Trimethylamine N‐oxide Production Improves Cardiac Function and Remodeling in a Mu... Organ CL, Li Z, Sharp TE III 2020-05-10 PMC
Trimethylamine N-Oxide in Relation to Cardiometabolic Health—Cause or Effect? Papandreou C, Moré M, Bellamine A 2020-05-07 PMC
Impact of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) metaorganismal pathway on cardiovascular disease Zhao Y, Wang Z 2020-04-20 PMC
Microbiota and Malodor—Etiology and Management Mogilnicka I, Bogucki P, Ufnal M 2020-04-20 PMC
Olfaction scaffolds the developing human from neonate to adolescent and beyond Schaal B, Saxton TK, Loos H 2020-04-20 PMC
Simultaneous Measurement of Urinary Trimethylamine (TMA) and Trimethylamine N-Oxide (TMAO) by Liquid Chromatography–Mass... Jia X, Osborn LJ, Wang Z 2020-04-17 PMC
Gut Microbiota beyond Bacteria—Mycobiome, Virome, Archaeome, and Eukaryotic Parasites in IBD Matijašić M, Meštrović T, Čipčić Paljeta... 2020-04-11 PMC
Gut microbiota in atherosclerosis: focus on trimethylamine N‐oxide Zhu Y, Li Q, Jiang H 2020-03-30 PMC
Discovery of a Cyclic Choline Analog That Inhibits Anaerobic Choline Metabolism by Human Gut Bacteria Bollenbach M, Ortega M, Orman M 2020-03-25 PMC
Engineered Polymersomes for the Treatment of Fish Odor Syndrome: A First Randomized Double Blind Olfactory Study Schmidt AC, Hebels ER, Weitzel C 2020-03-09 PMC
The Protective Effect of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor on Diabetic Nephropathy Through Remodeling Metabolic Phenotype a... Wei T, Shu Q, Ning J 2020-02-21 PMC
Trimethylamine N-Oxide Generated by the Gut Microbiota Is Associated with Vascular Inflammation: New Insights into Ather... Liu Y, Dai M 2020-02-17 PMC
Comparative milk proteome analysis of Kashmiri and Jersey cattle identifies differential expression of key proteins invo... Bhat SA, Ahmad SM, Ibeagha-Awemu EM 2020-02-14 PMC
Associations of plasma trimethylamine N-oxide, choline, carnitine, and betaine with inflammatory and cardiometabolic ris... Fu BC, Hullar MA, Randolph TW 2020-02-13 PMC
Fabrication of Biobased Hydrophobic Hybrid Cotton Fabrics Using Molecular Self-Assembly: Applications in the Development... Thamizhanban A, Sarvepalli GP, Lalitha K 2020-02-12 PMC
Short chain fatty acids and methylamines produced by gut microbiota as mediators and markers in the circulatory system Onyszkiewicz M, Jaworska K, Ufnal M 2020-01-16 PMC
Case reports of metabolic disorders from Nepal Sharma Pandey A 2019-11-19 PMC
Gut Microbiota-Dependent Marker TMAO in Promoting Cardiovascular Disease: Inflammation Mechanism, Clinical Prognostic, a... Yang S, Li X, Yang F 2019-11-19 PMC
Combining culture and culture‐independent methods reveals new microbial composition of halitosis patients' tongue biofil... Bernardi S, Karygianni L, Filippi A 2019-11-14 PMC
Untargeted Urinary 1H NMR-Based Metabolomic Pattern as a Potential Platform in Breast Cancer Detection Silva CL, Olival A, Perestrelo R 2019-11-07 PMC
Endovascular Closure Resolves Trimethylaminuria Caused by Congenital Portosystemic Shunts Ponce-Dorrego MD, Garzón-Moll G 2019-11-07 PMC
Metabolic Activation of Flavin Monooxygenase-mediated Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Formation in Experimental Kidney Disease Prokopienko AJ, West RE III, Schrum DP 2019-11-04 PMC
Elevation of Trimethylamine-N-Oxide in Chronic Kidney Disease: Contribution of Decreased Glomerular Filtration Rate Pelletier CC, Croyal M, Ene L 2019-11-01 PMC
Derivatization‐free determination of short‐chain volatile amines in human plasma and urine by headspace gas chromatograp... Neyer P, Bernasconi L, Fuchs JA 2019-10-08 PMC
A case of axillary bromhidrosis secondary to trimethylaminuria successfully treated with microwave-based therapy Patel F, Tu YM, Fernandes S 2019-10-07 PMC
Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) Renders Alkalinizing Properties and Its Urinary Metabolic Markers of MSG Consumption in Rats Nahok K, Li JV, Phetcharaburanin J 2019-09-27 PMC
Diagnosis and phenotypic assessment of trimethylaminuria, and its treatment with riboflavin: 1H NMR spectroscopy and gen... Bouchemal N, Ouss L, Brassier A 2019-09-18 PMC
NMR-based newborn urine screening for optimized detection of inherited errors of metabolism Embade N, Cannet C, Diercks T 2019-09-10 PMC
Changes in the Substrate Source Reveal Novel Interactions in the Sediment-Derived Methanogenic Microbial Community Szafranek-Nakonieczna A, Pytlak A, Grząd... 2019-09-08 PMC
Fast LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis and influence of sampling conditions for gut metabolites in plasma and serum van der Laan T, Kloots T, Beekman M 2019-08-26 PMC
Trimethylamine N-Oxide Metabolites in Early Pregnancy and Risk of Gestational Diabetes: A Nested Case-Control Study Huo X, Li J, Cao YF 2019-08-02 PMC
Gut microbes and metabolites as modulators of blood-brain barrier integrity and brain health Parker A, Fonseca S, Carding SR 2019-08-01 PMC
Effects of Hardwood Biochar on Methane Production, Fermentation Characteristics, and the Rumen Microbiota Using Rumen Si... Teoh R, Caro E, Holman DB 2019-07-10 PMC
A Cross-Sectional Study of Compositional and Functional Profiles of Gut Microbiota in Sardinian Centenarians Wu L, Zeng T, Zinellu A 2019-07-09 PMC
Abstracts from the 51st European Society of Human Genetics Conference: Posters 2019-07-03 PMC
Facile Fluorescence Monitoring of Gut Microbial Metabolite Trimethylamine N-oxide via Molecular Recognition of Guanidini... Yu H, Geng WC, Zheng Z 2019-06-24 PMC
Gut Microbiota and Ischemic Stroke: The Role of Trimethylamine N-Oxide Nam HS 2019-05-31 PMC
Impact of the halitosis on QoL in overweight and obese patients: Based on six years of experience in two centers in sula... Ahmed HO, Zmnako SS, Amin ZM 2019-05-30 PMC
Effect of Grape Pomace Polyphenols With or Without Pectin on TMAO Serum Levels Assessed by LC/MS-Based Assay: A Prelimin... Annunziata G, Maisto M, Schisano C 2019-05-21 PMC
Modulation of Circulating Trimethylamine N-Oxide Concentrations by Dietary Supplements and Pharmacological Agents: A Sys... Kalagi NA, Abbott KA, Alburikan KA 2019-05-10 PMC
Intestinal Microbiota in Cardiovascular Health and Disease: JACC State-of-the-Art Review Tang WH, Backhed F, Landmesser U 2019-04-30 PMC
Baseline urinalysis values in common bottlenose dolphins under human care in the Caribbean Jiménez-Zucchet N, Alejandro-Zayas T, Al... 2019-04-04 PMC
The genetic and biochemical basis of trimethylaminuria in an Irish cohort Doyle S, O'Byrne JJ, Nesbitt M 2019-03-25 PMC
Diet-induced metabolic changes of the human gut microbiome: importance of short-chain fatty acids, methylamines and indo... Abdul Rahim MB, Chilloux J, Martinez-Gil... 2019-03-22 PMC
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and the gut microbiome: Are bacteria responsible for fatty liver? Dong TS, Jacobs JP 2019-03-14 PMC
Wide diversity of methane and short-chain alkane metabolisms in uncultured archaea Borrel G, Adam PS, McKay LJ 2019-03-04 PMC
Psychotropics and the Microbiome: a Chamber of Secrets… Cussotto S, Clarke G, Dinan TG 2019-02-26 PMC
Association of FMO3 Variants with Blood Pressure in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study Bryant TS, Duggal P, Yu B 2019-02-18 PMC
Choline‐related‐inherited metabolic diseases—A mini review Wortmann SB, Mayr JA 2019-01-25 PMC
CRISPR analysis suggests that small circular single-stranded DNA smacoviruses infect Archaea instead of humans Díez-Villaseñor C, Rodriguez-Valera F 2019-01-17 PMC
Structure-guided identification of a small molecule that inhibits anaerobic choline metabolism by human gut bacteria Orman M, Bodea S, Funk MA 2018-12-17 PMC
Inborn errors of metabolism in the 21st century: past to present Arnold GL PMC
Common metabolic disorder (inborn errors of metabolism) concerns in primary care practice Agana M, Frueh J, Kamboj M PMC
From Point-of-Care Testing to eHealth Diagnostic Devices (eDiagnostics) Christodouleas DC, Kaur B, Chorti P 2018-11-20 PMC
Metabolic functions of the human gut microbiota: the role of metalloenzymes Rajakovich LJ, Balskus * EP 2018-11-19 PMC
Human chemosignals of disgust facilitate food judgment Zheng Y, You Y, Farias AR 2018-11-19 PMC
Nicotine-N’-oxidation by flavin monooxygenase enzymes Perez-Paramo YX, Chen G, Ashmore JH 2018-10-31 PMC
Title Authors Date Link
New perspectives on the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa Amat-Samaranch V, Agut-Busquet E, Vilarr... 2021-11-23 PMC
Retroperitoneoscopic lumbar sympathectomy for the treatment of primary plantar hyperhidrosis Hur KJ, Moon HW, Park YH 2021-11-12 PMC
Sexuality in Persons With Hidradenitis Suppurativa: Factors Associated With Sexual Desire and Functioning Impairment Quinto RM, Mastroeni S, Sampogna F 2021-10-07 PMC
Patients With Hidradenitis Suppurativa Negatively Perceive Both Medical and Euphemistic Appellations of Their Disease: A... Akoglu G, Esme P, Yildiz I 2021-09-01 PMC
Utilities of Botulinum Toxins in Dermatology and Cosmetology Naik PP 2021-09-21 PMC
A glycopyrronium bromide 1% cream for topical treatment of primary axillary hyperhidrosis: efficacy and safety results f... Abels C, Soeberdt M, Kilic A 2021-03-02 PMC
Pain as Defining Feature of Health Status and Prominent Therapeutic Target in Patients with Hidradenitis Suppurativa Sampogna F, Campana I, Fania L 2021-08-18 PMC
Thoracic sympathectomy for the treatment of primary axillary hyperhidrosis: systematic review and proportional meta-anal... Felisberto G Jr, Maria Cataneo AJ, Crist... 2021-07-20 PMC
An elderly man with a vascular axillary mass Bommareddy K, Kayastha S, Reddy SC 2021-05-26 PMC
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Healing hand ulcers caused by focal spasticity Gupta AD, Addison S 2020-03-05 PMC
Lantox—The Chinese Botulinum Toxin Drug—Complete English Bibliography and Comprehensive Formalised Literature Review Dressler D, Pan L, Su J 2021-05-22 PMC
The use of 33 MHz ultra-high-frequency ultrasonography for the evaluation of sweat glands in the axilla with osmidrosis Shinaoka A, Nakahara R, Saeki M 2021-05-13 PMC
Therapeutic Use of Botulinum Neurotoxins in Dermatology: Systematic Review Martina E, Diotallevi F, Radi G 2021-02-05 PMC
Foray into Concepts of Design and Evaluation of Microemulsions as a Modern Approach for Topical Applications in Acne Pat... Talianu MT, Dinu-Pîrvu CE, Ghica MV 2020-11-19 PMC
Open versus Closed Surgery for Axillary Osmidrosis: A Meta-Analysis of Articles Published in Four Languages Nomura M, Morioka D, Kojima Y 2020-11-11 PMC
Medical crowdfunding in a healthcare system with universal coverage: an exploratory study Lublóy Á 2020-11-09 PMC
The Efficacy and Effectiveness of Non-ablative Light-Based Devices in Hidradenitis Suppurativa: A Systematic Review and ... Jfri A, Saxena A, Rouette J 2020-11-03 PMC
Miscarriage as a Complication of Hidradenitis Suppurativa of the Vulva Al Ghamdi DS 2020-10-29 PMC
Microecological investigation and comparison of two clinical methods to evaluate axillary osmidrosis Du H, Ding S, Gao L 2020-09-21 PMC
A Paradoxical Vasodilatory Nutraceutical Intervention for Prevention and Attenuation of Migraine—A Hypothetical Review Chaliha DR, Vaccarezza M, Takechi R 2020-08-18 PMC
Botulinum Toxin Type B for Hidradenitis Suppurativa: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study Grimstad Ø, Kvammen BØ, Swartling C 2020-08-06 PMC
Using the Hair Removal Laser in the Axillary Region and its Effect on Normal Microbial Flora Fazel Z, Majidpour A, Behrangi E 2020-06-21 PMC
Something to Sweat About: Two Cases of Dupilumab-Induced Hyperhidrosis and Bromhidrosis Rowane M, Valencia R, Schend J 2020-05-20 PMC
Multi-modal treatment strategy for achieving an aesthetic lower face Jeong TK, Chung CH, Min KH 2020-05-15 PMC
Microbiota and Malodor—Etiology and Management Mogilnicka I, Bogucki P, Ufnal M 2020-04-20 PMC
Hidden Blade Scalpel: A Useful Tool for the Treatment of Axillary Osmidrosis Lu Y, Zhao A, Meng X 2020-04-08 PMC
The effects of 755 nm alexandrite laser on skin dryness and pruritus Pancar GS, Kalkan G, Eyupoglu O 2020-03-09 PMC
Hidradenitis Suppurativa: Current Understanding of Pathogenic Mechanisms and Suggestion for Treatment Algorithm Seyed Jafari SM, Hunger RE, Schlapbach C 2020-03-04 PMC
Hidradenitis Suppurativa: a lesser-known cause of AA amyloidosis Helvacı Ö, Güz G, Adışen E PMC
Hidradenitis suppurativa: infection, autoimmunity, or both? Constantinou CA, Fragoulis GE, Nikiphoro... 2019-12-30 PMC
A case of axillary bromhidrosis secondary to trimethylaminuria successfully treated with microwave-based therapy Patel F, Tu YM, Fernandes S 2019-10-07 PMC
Fecal medicines used in traditional medical system of China: a systematic review of their names, original species, tradi... Du H, Kuang TT, Qiu S 2019-09-13 PMC
Miscellaneous Perianal Afflictions Hagerman GF, Silva-Velazco J, Molina-Lop... 2019-08-22 PMC
The Safety and Impact of a Model of Intermittent, Time-Restricted Circadian Fasting (“Ramadan Fasting”) on Hidradenitis ... Damiani G, Mahroum N, Pigatto PD 2019-08-01 PMC
Disseminate Recurrent Folliculitis and Hidradenitis Suppurativa Are Associated Conditions: Results From a Retrospective ... Sechi A, Guglielmo A, Patrizi A 2019-07-31 PMC
A new type of surgery for the treatment of bromhidrosis Wang Y, Sun P, Leng X 2019-05-31 PMC
Systematic review of immunomodulatory therapies for hidradenitis suppurativa Lim SY, Oon HH 2019-05-13 PMC
Modified Suction-Assisted Cartilage Shaver for Axillary Osmidrosis Tseng YJ, Lee CH, Lin SH 2019-05-08 PMC
A Case of Scalp White Piedra Caused by Trichosporon Ovoides Singh A, Nyati A, Mohta A PMC
The Treatment of Axillary Odor: A Network Meta-Analysis Sun P, Wang Y, Bi M 2019-04-14 PMC
Integrated Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analysis of Human Eccrine Sweat Glands Identifies Missing and Novel Proteins Na CH, Sharma N, Madugundu AK 2019-04-12 PMC
Posterior Arm Perforator Flap for Axillary Reconstruction After Hidradenitis Suppurativa Excision Sirvan SS, Demir IA, Irmak F 2019-02-21 PMC
The Effectiveness of Local Surgical Technique in Treatment of Axillary Bromhidrosis Van TN, Manh TN, Minh PP 2019-01-29 PMC
Hurley III Hidradenitis Suppurativa Has an Aggressive Disease Course Vanlaerhoven AM, Ardon CB, van Straalen ... 2018-08-27 PMC
Sphingomonas paucimobilis empyema caused by remote foreign body aspiration Yuan J, Treadwell T 2018-04-11 PMC
Versajet-Assisted Hydraulic Epilation Through Small Incisions for Axillary Osmidrosis Han JH, Kim JK, Yoon KC 2018-02-20 PMC
Safety of Adalimumab Dosed Every Week and Every Other Week: Focus on Patients with Hidradenitis Suppurativa or Psoriasis Ryan C, Sobell JM, Leonardi CL 2018-01-27 PMC
Intralesional Diode Laser 1064 nm for the Treatment of Hidradenitis Suppurativa: A Report of Twenty Patients Fabbrocini G, França K, Lotti T 2018-01-07 PMC
Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase-Mediated Deoxyuridine Triphosphate Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) Assay to Characterize... Lee JM, Park JH, Kim BY 2017-12-26 PMC
Case series: The modified skoog approach for definitive management of severe hidradenitis suppurativa of the axilla Young Sing Q, Mohammed F, Mooteeram J 2017-10-25 PMC
Laser-induced synlabia, cryptomenorrhea, and urine retention: A case report and literature review Fadul-Elahi T, Janjua NB PMC
Effectiveness and Complications of Improved Liposuction–Curettage Through Mini-Incisions for the Treatment of Axillary O... Yang H, Xu G, Huang CL 2017-09-20 PMC
Dermoscopy of Yellow Concretions on Axillary Hair Cervantes J, Johr RJ, Tosti A 2017-08-22 PMC
The curative effect of liposuction curettage in the treatment of bromhidrosis: A meta-analysis Zhang L, Chen F, Kong J 2017-08-18 PMC
A novel organotypic 3D sweat gland model with physiological functionality Klaka P, Grüdl S, Banowski B 2017-08-10 PMC
Hidradenitis suppurativa: an update on connecting the tracts Smith MK, Nicholson CL, Parks-Miller A 2017-07-28 PMC
Descriptive Epidemiology of Hidradenitis Suppurativa in Greece: A Study of 152 Cases Katoulis AC, Liakou AI, Rotsiamis N 2017-05-17 PMC
A missense variant of the ABCC11 gene is associated with Axillary Osmidrosis susceptibility and clinical phenotypes in t... Ren Y, Liu W, Chen J 2017-05-09 PMC
Hidradenitis suppurativa: from pathogenesis to diagnosis and treatment Napolitano M, Megna M, Timoshchuk EA 2017-04-19 PMC
Medical and Surgical Treatment of Hidradenitis Suppurativa: A Review Scuderi N, Monfrecola A, Dessy LA 2017-03-21 PMC
Oxybutynin as an alternative treatment for hyperhidrosis Delort S, Marchi E, Corrêa MA PMC
Clinical and Molecular Evidence of ABCC11 Protein Expression in Axillary Apocrine Glands of Patients with Axillary Osmid... Toyoda Y, Takada T, Gomi T 2017-02-15 PMC
Working Up a Good Sweat – The Challenges of Standardising Sweat Collection for Metabolomics Analysis Hussain JN, Mantri N, Cohen MM PMC
Botulinum Toxin Off-Label Use in Dermatology: A Review Campanati A, Martina E, Giuliodori K 2017-02-01 PMC
Comparative Study of Efficacy and Safety of Botulinum Toxin a Injections and Subcutaneous Curettage in the Treatment of ... Budamakuntla L, Loganathan E, George A PMC
MMP8 Is Increased in Lesions and Blood of Acne Inversa Patients: A Potential Link to Skin Destruction and Metabolic Alte... Tsaousi A, Witte E, Witte K 2016-10-23 PMC
The Effect of Smoking and Age on the Response to First-Line Therapy of Hidradenitis Suppurativa: An Institutional Retros... Denny G, Anadkat M 2016-09-28 PMC
Clinical and epidemiological features of coryneform skin infections at a tertiary hospital Pinto M, Hundi GK, Bhat RM PMC
Diagnosis of Human Axillary Osmidrosis by Genotyping of the Human ABCC11 Gene: Clinical Practice and Basic Scientific Ev... Toyoda Y, Gomi T, Nakagawa H 2016-02-23 PMC
Pitted keratolysis de Almeida Jr HL, Siqueira RN, Meireles ... PMC
Treatment of Diffuse Planar Xanthoma of the Face after One Session of 1,444-nm Neodymium-Doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet ... Lee JM, Chun SH, So BJ 2015-12-07 PMC
Perianal Crohn’s disease and hidradenitis suppurativa: a possible common immunological scenario Giudici F, Maggi L, Santi R 2015-07-22 PMC
Papillon–Lefèvre syndrome: clinical presentation and management options Sreeramulu B, Shyam ND, Ajay P 2015-07-15 PMC
Quality of life in patients with primary axillary hyperhidrosis before and after treatment with fractionated microneedle... Abtahi-Naeini B, Naeini FF, Adibi N PMC
Actualities of Management of Aural, Nasal, and Throat Foreign Bodies Oreh A, Folorunsho D, Ibekwe T PMC
Rapid Stress System Drives Chemical Transfer of Fear from Sender to Receiver de Groot JH, Smeets MA, Semin GR 2015-02-27 PMC
Minimally Invasive Surgery for Axillary Osmidrosis Using a Combination of Subcutaneous Tissue Removal and a 1,444-nm Nd:... Lee SG, Ryu HJ, Kim IH 2014-11-26 PMC
Surgical treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis by suction-curettage of sweat glands de Rezende RM, Luz FB PMC
Management of hyperhidrosis Stashak AB, Brewer JD 2014-10-29 PMC
Treatment of uncommon sites of focal primary hyperhidrosis: experience with pharmacological therapy using oxybutynin Teivelis MP, Wolosker N, Krutman M PMC
Zinc Therapy in Dermatology: A Review Gupta M, Mahajan VK, Mehta KS 2014-07-10 PMC
Therapeutic effect of Botulinum toxin-A in 88 patients with Trigeminal Neuralgia with 14-month follow-up Li S, Lian YJ, Chen Y 2014-06-22 PMC
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Systematic investigation of the aza-Cope reaction for fluorescence imaging of formaldehyde in vitro and in vivo Du Y, Zhang Y, Huang M 2021-10-05 PMC
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Identification Of Novel lncRNAs For Detection Of HBV-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma Li Y, Chen X, Huang H 2019-11-27 PMC
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Genomic Basis of Convergent Island Phenotypes in Boa Constrictors Card DC, Adams RH, Schield DR 2019-10-23 PMC
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A Network of SLC and ABC Transporter and DME Genes Involved in Remote Sensing and Signaling in the Gut-Liver-Kidney Axis Rosenthal SB, Bush KT, Nigam SK 2019-08-15 PMC
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Towards precision medicine for stress disorders: diagnostic biomarkers and targeted drugs Le-Niculescu H, Roseberry K, Levey DF 2019-03-12 PMC
Title Authors Date Link
Human β-Defensin 2 and Its Postulated Role in Modulation of the Immune Response Cieślik M, Bagińska N, Górski A 2021-11-03 PMC
Therapeutic Potential of MRGPRX2 Inhibitors on Mast Cells Ogasawara H, Noguchi M 2021-10-27 PMC
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A Novel Cellular Therapy to Treat Pancreatic Pain in Experimental Chronic Pancreatitis Using Human Alpha-1 Antitrypsin O... Chow RP, Nguyen K, Gou W 2021-11-16 PMC
Versatile Role of Prokineticins and Prokineticin Receptors in Neuroinflammation Lattanzi R, Miele R 2021-11-09 PMC
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Internal herniation following laparoscopic gastric bypass: addressing the mesoclosure technique Pereira R, Vo T, Perera M 2019-11-26 PMC
The ACAMTO study—impact of add-on osteopathic treatment on adolescent patients with anorexia nervosa: study protocol for... Letranchant A, Montebello YK, bigre CD 2021-11-24 PMC
Community knowledge and awareness of colorectal cancer and screening tools: Community-based survey of 1,912 residents of... Alaqel MA, Alshammari SA, Alahmari SM 2021-11-14 PMC
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Tianwang Buxin Granules Influence the Intestinal Flora in Perimenopausal Insomnia Yang X, Xiao H, Zeng Y 2021-11-16 PMC
Patient preferences of healthcare delivery in irritable bowel syndrome: a focus group study Masclee GM, Snijkers JT, Boersma M 2021-11-23 PMC
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Outcomes of a Comprehensive Pain Rehabilitation Program for Patients With Fibromyalgia Engelberg-Cook E, Hu D, Kurklinsky S 2021-11-10 PMC
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The molecular pathology of pathogenic mitochondrial tRNA variants Richter U, McFarland R, Taylor RW 2021-02-12 PMC
Putative associations between inflammatory biomarkers, obesity, and obstructive sleep apnea Wali SO, Manzar MD, Abdelaziz MM 2021-09-15 PMC
The Role of Nutrient Supplementation in the Management of Chronic Pain in Fibromyalgia: A Narrative Review Haddad HW, Mallepalli NR, Scheinuk JE 2021-04-28 PMC
Migraine Characteristics, Comorbidities, Healthcare Resource Utilization, and Associated Costs of Early Users of Erenuma... Chandler D, Szekely C, Aggarwal S 2021-09-17 PMC
Genome-wide analysis of 53,400 people with irritable bowel syndrome highlights shared genetic pathways with mood and anx... Eijsbouts C, Zheng T, Kennedy NA 2021-11-05 PMC
The Role of lncRNAs in Regulating the Intestinal Mucosal Mechanical Barrier Chen S, Zhang C, He B 2021-11-15 PMC
A Primary Care Approach to Constipation in Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Mathew R, Attarha BO, Kallumkal G 2021-11-15 PMC
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The Complex Molecular Picture of Gut and Oral Microbiota–Brain-Depression System: What We Know and What We Need to Know Scassellati C, Marizzoni M, Cattane N 2021-11-02 PMC
Assessment of Community Pharmacist’s Practice and Patient Counselling Toward Acute Diarrhea Treatment in Khartoum Locali... Hamadouk RM, Arbab AH, Yousef BA 2021-11-16 PMC
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Single‐ and Multiple‐Dose Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of PN‐943, a Gastrointestinal‐Restricted Oral Peptide An... Modi NB, Cheng X, Mattheakis L 2021-05-04 PMC
Nano‐analysis Reveals High Fraction of Serotonin Release during Exocytosis from a Gut Epithelium Model Cell Wang Y, Gu C, Patel BA 2021-09-24 PMC
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Current noninvasive modalities in Crohn’s disease monitoring Mitselos IV, Fousekis FS, Lamouri C 2021-07-02 PMC
Adverse events of fecal microbiota transplantation: a meta-analysis of high-quality studies Michailidis L, Currier AC, Le M 2021-07-02 PMC
Impact of Endometriosis in Women of Arab Ancestry on: Health-Related Quality of Life, Work Productivity, and Diagnostic ... Mousa M, Al-Jefout M, Alsafar H 2021-09-14 PMC
Prevalence, clinical characteristics, and management of irritable bowel syndrome in Vietnam: A scoping review Quach DT, Vu KT, Vu KV 2021-07-21 PMC
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Structural characterization and protective effects of polysaccharide from Gracilaria lemaneiformis on LPS-induced injury... Li X, Gong Y, Yao W 2021-11-09 PMC
The Challenges of Ethical Review in Clinical Research of Traditional Chinese Medicine Zhang J, Zhang ZM 2021-11-12 PMC
The anti-inflammatory effect of bacterial short chain fatty acids is partially mediated by endocannabinoids Vijay A, Kouraki A, Gohir S 2021-11-17 PMC
Lactobacillus plantarum ZJUFB2 Prevents High Fat Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance in Association With Modulation of the G... Zhong H, Wang J, Abdullah 2021-10-14 PMC
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Acute Psychosis Due to Anti-N-Methyl D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis Following COVID-19 Vaccination: A Case Report Flannery P, Yang I, Keyvani M 2021-11-04 PMC
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Systematic Survey of the Alteration of the Faecal Microbiota in Rats With Gastrointestinal Disorder and Modulation by Mu... Wu Y, Wu Y, Wu H 2021-11-02 PMC
Comparing gut resistome composition among patients with acute Campylobacter infections and healthy family members Hansen ZA, Cha W, Nohomovich B 2021-11-16 PMC
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Evaluation of a Digital Handheld Hydrogen Breath Monitor to Diagnose Lactose Malabsorption: Interventional Crossover Stu... Mathews SC, Templeton S, Taylor SK 2021-10-18 PMC
Therapeutic Effects of Punica granatum (Pomegranate): An Updated Review of Clinical Trials Eghbali S, Askari SF, Avan R 2021-11-16 PMC
Mucosa-Associated Escherichia coli in Colorectal Cancer Patients and Control Subjects: Variations in the Prevalence and ... Nouri R, Hasani A, Masnadi Shirazi K 2021-11-09 PMC
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Berberine Improves Irinotecan-Induced Intestinal Mucositis Without Impairing the Anti-colorectal Cancer Efficacy of Irin... Yue B, Gao R, Lv C 2021-11-02 PMC
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The Safety and Efficacy of Microbial Ecosystem Therapeutic-2 in People With Major Depression: Protocol for a Phase 2, Do... Chinna Meyyappan A, Sgarbossa C, Vazquez... 2021-09-22 PMC
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Understanding digital health ecosystem from Australian citizens’ perspective: A scoping review Oshni Alvandi A, Bain C, Burstein F 2021-11-15 PMC
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The terpenes camphene and alpha-bisabolol inhibit inflammatory and neuropathic pain via Cav3.2 T-type calcium channels Gadotti VM, Huang S, Zamponi GW 2021-11-14 PMC
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Characteristics, Risk Factors, and Prevalence of Clostridioides difficile Among Hospitalized Patients in a Tertiary Care... Abukhalil AD, AbuKhdeir L, Hamed M 2021-11-09 PMC
Corrigendum: Inflammatory and Microbiota-Related Regulation of the Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Barbara G, Barbaro MR, Fuschi D 2021-11-01 PMC
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Clinical efficacy of Tiaoqi Jiangni decoction in the treatment of functional dyspepsia and its influence on life quality Han J, Yang Q, Xu X 2021-10-15 PMC
Symptomatology and Serum Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Metabolomics; Do They Predict Endometriosis in Fertile Women Undergo... Tempest N, Hill CJ, Whelan A 2021-09-15 PMC
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Probiotic consumption influences universal adaptive mutations in indigenous human and mouse gut microbiota Ma C, Zhang C, Chen D 2021-10-18 PMC
Impact of Health Literacy-directed Colonoscopy Bowel Preparation Instruction Sheet Davis TC, Hancock J, Morris J 2017-05-01 PMC
Does self-reported chronic pain influence savoring of aesthetic experiences? Weigand R, Moosmayer A, Jacobsen T 2021-11-12 PMC
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Nano Milk Protein-Mucilage Complexes: Characterization and Anticancer Effect El-Maksoud AA, Makhlouf AI, Altemimi AB 2021-10-21 PMC
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Extracellular Vesicles in Serum and Central Nervous System Tissues Contain microRNA Signatures in Sporadic Amyotrophic L... Lo TW, Figueroa-Romero C, Hur J 2021-10-29 PMC
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Perforated Duodenal Ulcer in a Young Nepalese Girl: An Infrequent Diagnosis for Age Shrestha AL, Shrestha A 2021-11-18 PMC
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Human β-Defensin 2 and Its Postulated Role in Modulation of the Immune Response Cieślik M, Bagińska N, Górski A 2021-11-03 PMC
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Therapeutic Potential of MRGPRX2 Inhibitors on Mast Cells Ogasawara H, Noguchi M 2021-10-27 PMC
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Walking down Skeletal Muscle Lane: From Inflammasome to Disease Dubuisson N, Versele R, Davis-López de C... 2021-11-04 PMC
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Novel Methylation Biomarkers for Colorectal Cancer Prognosis Gutierrez A, Demond H, Brebi P 2021-11-19 PMC
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Assessment of antiphospholipid antibodies and calprotectin as biomarkers for discriminating mild from severe COVID‐19 Lee A, Nahm CH, Lee J 2021-10-05 PMC
The clinical significance of vitamin D levels and vitamin D receptor mRNA expression in colorectal neoplasms Fang Y, Song H, Huang J 2021-10-15 PMC
The promising therapeutic potentials of ginsenosides mediated through p38 MAPK signaling inhibition Arafa ES, Refaey MS, Abd El-Ghafar OA 2021-11-12 PMC
Can dietary intake protect against low-grade inflammation in children and adolescents? Bujtor M 2021-10-28 PMC
Pharmacogenomic‐based personalized medicine: Multistakeholder perspectives on implementational drivers and barriers in t... Subasri M, Barrett D, Sibalija J 2021-07-16 PMC
Pharmacogenetic variants of infliximab response in young patients with inflammatory bowel disease Curci D, Lucafò M, Cifù A 2021-06-19 PMC
Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome with hypoadrenocorticism and diabetes mellitus in a dog: A rare case Hwang S, An J, Lee J 2021-09-04 PMC
Short-term clinical outcomes of a European training programme for robotic colorectal surgery Panteleimonitis S, Miskovic D, Bissett-A... 2020-12-07 PMC
Endoscopic vacuum therapy for in- and outpatient treatment of colorectal defects Kühn F, Wirth U, Zimmermann J 2020-12-01 PMC
Measuring treatment effect on psoriatic arthritis-related domains: insights from the SPIRIT-H2H study at weeks 24 and 52 Behrens F, Leage SL, Sapin C 2021-09-13 PMC
Colonic inflammation induces changes in glucose levels through modulation of incretin system Zatorski H, Salaga M, Zielińska M 2021-09-17 PMC
The sympathies of the body: functional organization and neuronal differentiation in the peripheral sympathetic nervous s... Ernsberger U, Deller T, Rohrer H 2021-11-10 PMC
Increased Ileostomy Output as an Indicator of Thyroid Storm in a Patient without an Established History of Underlying Th... Muneem A, Rahim MA, Karamchandani K 2021-11-06 PMC
Adolescent Health on Social Media and the Mentorship of Youth Investigators: Five Content Analysis Studies Conducted by ... Bushman M, Godishala S, Hyzer R 2021-09-15 PMC
Somatic symptom disorder: a diagnostic dilemma Dunphy L, Penna M, EL-Kafsi J 2019-11-25 PMC
Small bowel perforation secondary to CMV-positive terminal ileitis postrenal transplant Kato K, Cooper M 2019-11-25 PMC
Tianwang Buxin Granules Influence the Intestinal Flora in Perimenopausal Insomnia Yang X, Xiao H, Zeng Y 2021-11-16 PMC
The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Smilax china L. Extract on LPS-Stimulated THP-1 via Downregulation of MAPK and NF-κB Sig... Jiang S, Wei Q, Ye X 2021-11-16 PMC
Role of the Microenvironment in Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Strategies for Treating Human Liver Diseases Xu SJ, Ye LP, Wang W 2021-11-16 PMC
Intestinal Collinsella may mitigate infection and exacerbation of COVID-19 by producing ursodeoxycholate Hirayama M, Nishiwaki H, Hamaguchi T 2021-11-23 PMC
Assessment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) severity with novel serum-based markers: A pilot study Goyale A, Jain A, Smith C 2021-11-23 PMC
Patient preferences of healthcare delivery in irritable bowel syndrome: a focus group study Masclee GM, Snijkers JT, Boersma M 2021-11-23 PMC
Pathergy test with a 23G needle with and without self-saliva in patients with Behçet’s disease, recurrent aphthous stoma... Shenavandeh S, Sadeghi SM, Aflaki E 2021-11-01 PMC
Immune ageing at single-cell resolution Mogilenko DA, Shchukina I, Artyomov MN 2021-11-23 PMC
TLR2 and TLR4 in Parkinson’s disease pathogenesis: the environment takes a toll on the gut Gorecki AM, Anyaegbu CC, Anderton RS 2021-11-17 PMC
Prior Bariatric Surgery is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Poor Outcomes in COVID-19: Propensity Matched Analysis of a... Hadi YB, Mann R, Sohail AH 2021-11-23 PMC
Therapeutic vaccines for breast cancer: Has the time finally come? Corti C, Giachetti PP, Eggermont AM 2021-11-22 PMC
Commercial utilities and future perspective of nanomedicines Malviya R, Fuloria S, Verma S 2021-11-19 PMC
Assessment of Benefit of Advanced Inflammatory Bowel Disease Training: Challenges and Solutions Cushing KC, Adar T, Ciorba M 2020-04-29 PMC
Survival Analysis of Hepatosplenic T Cell Lymphoma: A Population-Based Study Using SEER Li Y, Chen K, Zuo C 2021-11-17 PMC
Outcomes of a Comprehensive Pain Rehabilitation Program for Patients With Fibromyalgia Engelberg-Cook E, Hu D, Kurklinsky S 2021-11-10 PMC
Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Deficiency in Intestinal Epithelial Cells Aggravates Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Qian M, Liu J, Zhao D 2021-08-25 PMC
Benefiting from big data in natural products: importance of preserving foundational skills and prioritizing data quality Cech NB, Medema MH, Clardy J 2021-11-04 PMC
Utility, promise, and limitations of liquid chromatography‐mass spectrometry‐based therapeutic drug monitoring in precis... Gaspar VP, Ibrahim S, Zahedi RP 2021-11-04 PMC

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Partners

Eurordis

Eurordis is a leading alliance of a big spectrum of rare disease organizations located in Europe.

www.eurordis.org

Rarefundingteam

Rarefundingteam provides support for rare disease organizations to improve their marketing activities and their funding opportunities

www.rarefundingteam.com

Findacure

Findacure is an organization with the goal to provide mentorship, training and advice to rare disease patient support groups to enable those groups to work efficiently towards our common goal: to make rare disease patients being heard and make diagnostic and treatment available to them.

www.findacure.org.uk

Other organizations

If other organizations want to enable a partnership with us, please let us know ...

About Us

We are a nonprofit patient group with a lot of members who are struggling with IMBS themselves.

Wherever possible, we try to drive research on IMBS in general and we also try to support individual patients as much as possible.

Domain owner and responsible for the content: Danny Kunz

Address: Danny Kunz Heilbronnerstr. 16/2 71634 Ludwigsburg Germany

Email: contact@imbs-alliance.org (Legal concerns around the domain and content) support@imbs-alliance.org (Patient support)

Phone: +49 151 565 273 00 (Please use this phone contact only for legal concerns around the domain and content, we are not able to provide phone support for patients at this moment)

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As alternative the privacy policy is available in simple text format here .

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